TB-1917-12b

The Builder Magazine

December 1917 – Volume III – Number 12

THE NATIONAL MASONIC RESEARCH SOCIETY

Part 2


Continued from Part 1



.xx Next Month: January 1918
Previous Month: November 1917www General Index

SEARCH AGAIN!

By Bro. H. L. Haywood, Iowa

A SEARCH FOR A NAME

MASONIC Research!" I write the words out slowly. I write them out a second time and stare at them. "Masonic Research !" What a formidable forbidding sound they have ! They conjure up pictures of sallow bookworms burrowing about in mildewy libraries; or dyspeptic professors sitting up nights in a laboratory; or of some grimy archeologist digging up the bones of Egyptian crocodiles; or maybe they suggest some dapper young university graduate gathering data for a brand-new factory efficiency system. There is no denying these associations; they are there, and I do not wonder that many good Masons of the common walks of life shy aside when a new movement calling itself a "Research Society" comes along to bid for their attention. Did we make a mistake in calling it a "Research" Society? Perhaps we did; some of us thought so at the time, but nobody, to save his life, though everybody used his think apparatus to the limit, could conceive of another name that would fill the bill.

A "research" Society it had to be – and consequently IS. Now the task before us is to get abroad among our friends, and our prospective friends, a new feeling about this word, a new understanding of what it means when we use it. After all it is use and not the dictionary that interprets our words to us, and it is just the purpose of this little screed to say that we are using the word "Research" in a very different sense to the uses described above. What we mean by Research is not what the college professors would mean by it.

"Research" the One Cure for the Apathetic Mason

But even so, we are not committing crimes against the dictionary for what is the dictionary derivation of the word? Does it not come from "re" and from "search" and doesn't that mean "search again" ? And what are we Masonic researchers but Masons who are making "another search" in Masonry, digging up things we didn't know were there, finding matters of fascinating interest which had been hidden from us before? To the brother who has nosed about a little bit in Masonry and has come to the decision that while its teachings of brotherhood are very nice there is little in it to interest him, we say "Search again," brother. To the man who thinks he has "studied" it and has come to its limits, we say "Search again" – there isn't any limit to Masonry except the sky. We say that the one cure for all the indifference, the apathy, the indolence, the "don't care a shuck" of the watch-fob Mason can be remedied forever if we can get him to make another search in Masonry.

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Methods of "Research"

How can a Mason set about this task of making another search? There are as many ways as there are men but there are a few methods which anybody can use, and it will not be beside the mark to note two or three of them. We will divide them into two classes; the use of books, the not using books, and we will speak of the latter first, as the high cost of books makes it more practicable to many of us.

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"Research" Without Books

Let us suppose that you are a busy man, with many interests outside the Order, that you have an average education, and that you don't care to read a lot about the subject. Can you indulge in Masonic Research ? Try this plan. Go to Lodge at the next meeting when a candidate is to be initiated; sit back in a comfortable chair and watch every move that is made and listen to every word that is spoken; and as you watch and listen keep saying to yourself, What does that mean ? How can I put that meaning in my own plain words? How can I make use of that when I get home, or when I get to work tomorrow? What is the LIFE VALUE of this for me? When you are doing that you are making another search in Masonry and you will be surprised to find how the "work" will open up to you and reveal surprising new meanings.

You can do another thing, you not-to-use-books researcher; you can hunt around among your fellow Masons until you find a few who are like you in a desire to get under the skin of the Ritual; then you can get them off into a corner, or invite them down to your house, and you can begin to ask THEM the question which you had before been asking yourself. You can say to them, "What did you fellows get out of this or that? Why do you think the candidate was taken around three times? What is your reason for the manner in which he is clothed? What means the Pot of Incense which was swung before our eyes in the Third Degree lecture? You will be perfectly amazed at the results, and so will your friends, for you will discover how much fun it is to do Masonic Research with no other equipment than one's own wits.

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"Research" With Books

Now let us suppose that you have grown bolder, and more determined to get under the veils of Masonry; you venture to dip into a few books; how will you go about that? The best plan is to begin by reading a few short and simple works that deal with the subject as a whole; Brother Newton wrote his "Builders" and Brother MacBride wrote his "Speculative Masonry" for just such a purpose; and there are many others. After you have gotten your aeroplane view you can then lay out a little field for more special study. You will have no difficulty in finding a field, for Masonry is as long and as broad as the life of man. You can choose the history of the Order, or its Symbolism, or its Philosophy, or its Jurisprudence, or you can find enough to keep you busy for a life-time in studying the biographies of great Masons – men like Albert Pike, and George Washington, and Robert Freke Gould, and William Preston, and so on.

When you have chosen your special field it will be well to break that into smaller parts and specialize on one of the parts. Thus, if you elect to read the history of the Fraternity you can choose to study the medieval gilds, or the Comacines, or, say, eighteenth century Masonry in England.

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Induce the Master of Your Lodge to Inaugurate "Research" Meetings

After you have discovered what fascinations such a course of reading holds for you, you can again do what you did before; you can hunt up a group of likeinded brethren and persuade them to go with you to a little venture of forming a Study Club. If you do that – but I mustn't go into all that would follow! Being an enthusiast on the subject I would eat up all ae space in this issue!

Or – better than that – you may be able to infect the Master of your Lodge with your new-born enthusiasm and persuade him to make use of an hour or more during your regular meeting in order to awaken the membership to the fascinations of Masonic Resarch: "Research," I say advisedly, for all this time you have been engaging in that very thing, little as you may have realized it.

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Results to be Derived From "Research"

What will be the results of this adventure of making another search in Masonry? There will be many little pleasant results, but there will be two great results, and it is of these only that I have space to speak.

For one thing, you will have unearthed the profound and exciting interest that lies in Masonry. I once heard of a Tennessee mountaineer who sold his little farm for forty dollars; he had been able to hunt squirrels and rabbits over that farm but he had not been able to make a living. So he sold it to a group of men, and these men took more than a million dollars worth of marble out of that mountainside inside of a year! Are not many Masons like that man? They go rabbit hunting around over Masonry without ever discovering the millions of dollars worth of marble that lies under its surface. Your study will uncover to you all the unimaginable riches of Masonry; it will reveal to you how interesting it is.

But there will be a still greater result than that! Masonry is not a creed, or a mere set of antiquarian teachings, it is a vast dynamo of power. The trouble with us all is that we have this dynamo in our possession but we are not using it. We are like Hero of Alexandria who toyed with steam, or like the alchemists who played with electricity, without ever realizing what they had in their hands. If ever we find a means whereby to set loose the living power that lies in Masonry we will have performed a service that will outrival anything ever done to man. Masonry is that full of potentialities! And if this is ever done it will be done by the men who are not contented to take a lukewarm interest in Masonry, but who go ahead with the determination to "make another search" into the vitals of the greatest and oldest Fraternity in the world.

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Progress of the Study Plan In Indiana

Since September 1st and up to the time of going press with this issue of the Correspondence Circle Bulletin, exactly one hundred and ten Lodges in Indima have appointed "Research Committees" and are taking up the "Bulletin Course of Masonic Study" as a part of their monthly Lodge meetings.

As evidence of the practicability of the plan and so show what the Indiana Masons think of it, we present the following letter from the Chairman of Winslow Jodge No. 260:

"Winslow, Indiana.

'Dear Brother:

"We have held our first 'Study Club' meeting. It was a success from every angle. I enclose a copy of the notice of the meeting which was sent out to our members and a goodly number responded.

"The undersigned, as Chairman of the Committee, conducted the meeting and had no difficulty in answering all the questions, although I am free to say that I did not know such lack of knowledge of the Institution existed among the membership as made itself apparent at this meeting. Men whom I thought had given some study to the Fraternity asked questions that surprised me and they were more surprised when they were answered.

"At the close of the meeting I asked an expression from every member present and all expressed themselves as more than pleased with the meeting, each agreeing that he had learned many things about the Fraternity, its aims and purposes, that he had never known before. I then announced the program for the November meeting. Ten members were given places on the program and each was eager to take the part assigned him and to find out all he could on the subject assigned. All the work is along the lines laid out by the National Masonic Research Society.

"I have the only stagger at a Masonic Library in town and before eight o'clock Sunday morning I was besieged by members wanting into my study to start their work.

"Every indication is that the 'Study Club' plan will be a big thing for our Lodge. The Committee is well pleased with its start and will keep the ball rolling while the interest gains. "With best wishes, I am,

Fraternally yours, A. J. Heuring, Chairman."

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~~ooOoo~~


THE TRIAL OF CHRIST FROM A LAWYER'S STANDPOINT

By Bro. Louis H. Fead, Grand Master, Michigan

Brother Louis H. Fead, the sixty-seventh Grand Master of the Grand Lodge F. and A. M. of the State of Michigan, was born at Lexington, Michigan, May 2, 1877, and is consequently one of the youngest Grand Masters that ever presided over that Grand Lodge. He graduated from the Lexington High School in 1893, attended Olivet College two years, Detroit College of Law one year and graduated from the Law Department of the University of Michigan in 1900; settled at Newberry, Michigan, July 25, 1900, and was elected Prosecuting Attorney of Luce County the same year, taking the office January 1, 1901. Was re-elected every two years for six consecutive terms when he was elected Circuit Judge of the Eleventh Judicial Circuit, composed of the counties of Alger, Chippewa, Luce and Schoolcraft, in 1912, taking office January, 1913, his term expiring January 1, 1918. He has just been re-elected for the full term of six years commencing January 1, 1918, without any opposition, either in the primaries or at the election. He is also engaged in the banking business being vice-president of the Newberry State Bank.

Bro. Fead is a member of all the various bodies of Masonry and allied Orders.

Young in years, vigorous in health, sturdy in manhood, richly endowed with brilliant qualities of mind and best of all a big heart overflowing with love for his fellow man, Michigan Masons are indeed proud of their Grand Master for 1917-18.

An address delivered before the Masonic Relief Association of the United States and Canada at the biennial meeting held in Omaha, Nebraska, Sept. 25-27, 1917.

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Resume of Legal Principles Involved

IT may seem to you, at first blush, that the subject of this address is not strictly appropriate to a Masonic gathering. During the meeting of the Relief Association, we have heard much of Masonic relief and charity, and our minds have been tuned to that idea. But Masonry could live without particularly teaching charity as it might rely upon that natural impulse which prompts men of generous natures to extend aid to those in want. On the other hand, Justice is one of the basic principles of our institution, within which true charity is embraced, upon which the idea of fraternity is builded and without which there can be no true brotherhood. Consequently, it behooves the Mason to think much on the subject of Justice, the rendering to every man his just due without distinction, and to learn where he can, just principles that he may practice them. Where is there a better field for his contemplation and study than the most famous criminal trial in the history of the world, where all the diverse passions of humanity were loosed, the trial of Jesus Christ? And in presenting it to you, I desire to present the subject, stripped of religious aspects, as a legal study, and in line with the duty of Masons to seriously consider the Masonic principle of Justice.

Heretofore, our consideration of the trial of Christ has always been tinged with a religious coloring. We have been taught and have learned to look upon the tragedy as an unspeakable outrage committed upon the Savior of Mankind, the Son of God. Its human side has been seldom, if ever, presented to us; The divine character of Christ has always been pre-eminent in our minds and we have viewed the scene either in a humanitarian way, with horror at the cruelty and vicious hatred of the persecutors of one who harmed no man and did only good, or in a religious way, as the voluntary sacrifice by God of his own Son for the redemption of the world.

This evening, for a few minutes, I want to consider this tragedy with you from a different viewpoint, from its legal rather than its humanitarian or religious side. We are not now considering Christ as divine, but as human. The trial is not that of the Son of God but of Jesus the man, the carpenter, and the son of the carpenter, of Nazareth. He is the prisoner at the bar, entitled to the protection only of those laws provided for the protection of any person accused of crime, subject to the punishment provided for the breach of the law, and, in all respects, having the same rights and only the same rights as has any accused inhabitant of the country. The justice or the injustice of the execution and the motives of those who condemned him are entirely beside the question except in so far as they may be pertinent to the legal phase of the controversy. Our purpose is merely to discover whether the accused man Jesus was lawfully condemned in accordance with the settled legal principles of the times and land.

The proposition before us may be summed up in two questions: 1. Was Christ guilty of a breach of the law? 2. If he was, was he regularly convicted and executed in accordance with the provisions of the law ? As a partial answer to the first question and to bring the viewpoint sharply to your minds, let me say that when Jesus said he was the Son of God, he was guilty of blasphemy under the laws then in force and if he had been regularly tried and convicted of that offence and executed by the legally provided punishment of stoning to death, there could be no legal exception to the execution, whatever one might think of its justice or propriety. Judea, at this time, was a Roman province or dependency. As Judea was an enlightened land, Rome, with that splendid administrative ability which fostered self-government so long as there was constant recognition of Roman supreme sovereignty, permitted her to enforce practically entirely her own system of laws, through the instrumentality of her own courts and to inflict her punishments, except where the sentence was death, in which case Roman sanction was required, possibly to pronounce, certainly to execute, the sentence. Both the Jewish and Roman legal systems were admirable and, in many respects, persons accused and tried before their courts were much more fully protected from unjust sentence than under our modern systems, although the punishment of the guilty was more generally assured. And Jesus was tried, not by a mob as we sometimes think, but before two courts of proper jurisdiction and under both the Jewish and Roman systems of law whose enlightened provisions are even now being gradually incorporated into Anglo Saxon jurisprudence, from which they had been for centuries barred by the autocratic and evil theories of the Feudal system.

In order that we may intelligently pursue the enquiry, let us briefly state the principal provisions of the law relating to the trial of criminal cases in Judea, the bare enumeration of which will satisfy you, I think, that the present day system is not immeasurably superior to the past in all respects.

The trial of the major offences was had before the Sanhedrim, a court of general jurisdiction, composed of 71 rulers, priests, scribes and scholars, and having a general place of meeting in the temple. The presiding officer was usually, but not always, the High Priest. Upon extraordinary occasions, the Sanhedrim could meet in the palace of the High Priest. In a capital case, that is one in which the death penalty could be inflicted, twenty-one members were required to be present. No Jewish court could conduct judicial proceedings on a feast day and in a capital case, the court could not sit at night.

A person accused of crime could be arrested only after a formal accusation setting out the crime of which he was accused, unless he were taken in the actual commission of crime. If arrested at night, he must be kept in ward until the next day.

In all cases, the accused was presumed to be innocent until proved guilty. He could be tried and condemned only if he were present. He could not be called upon to testify nor could he be made a witness against himself. The charge must be proved by other witnesses. Counsel must be appointed for his defence. Evidence in his favour was to be freely admitted.

No one could be convicted upon the testimony of a single witness; at least two must testify in the presence of the accused and must agree together. Their testimony was required to be scrutinized carefully and technically and, in case of slight disagreement between them, it was insufficient to convict. The oath administered to the witness was an adjuration "by the living God." This was the most solemn oath a Jew could take and, when so adjured, he was bound to answer and to tell the truth. It was the duty of the presiding officer of the court to call the attention of the witnesses to the value of life and to warn them not to forget anything they knew in the prisoner's favor.

In minor cases, counsel on both sides were permitted to make an argument. In capital cases, only counsel for the accused was heard.

After the testimony was in, the votes of the younger members of the court were taken first, that they might not be influenced by their older associates. A judge who had voted for conviction could change his vote at any time. One who had once spoken for acquittal could not change his vote to conviction. In capital cases, a majority of at least two was required to convict. A verdict of acquittal could be given at once. A verdict of guilty could not be pronounced until a day after the conclusion of the trial. That day was to be spent by those judges who favoured conviction in fasting, prayer and religious meditation. If a verdict of acquittal was not reached on the day the trial ended, the court was imperatively obliged to adjourn to permit the full day of fasting and prayer.

Upon conviction, the condemned man was led away to be stoned; but the court remained in session. An officer stood at the door with a signal flag. Another followed the prisoner to the further point from which he could see the signal. If any new witnesses came to prove the innocence of the accused the signal flag was waved; and the execution of the sentence was stayed until the new witnesses had been heard and judgement again pronounced.

The spirit of the Jewish law was well illustrated in the precise and technical rules protecting those accused of crime. It was a common saying that the "Sanhedrim was to save life, not to destroy life." It was under such a system that the Sanhedrim purported to conduct the trial of Jesus and by that system the regularity of the procedure is to be tested.

With this brief resume of the important legal principles involved in the present discussion, let us take up the various incidents in the trial of Christ and examine their legality.

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I. THE COURT

No enlightened system of jurisprudence has ever sanctioned the participation of a partisan judge in a case, of a judge interested in the outcome of the suit. Under the Mosaic law the judges were admonished: "Thou shalt not wrest judgement; thou shalt not respect persons, neither take a gift." The theory was that the judgement was God's. The courts were merely the human agents appointed to state that judgement. The Sanhedrim, the Supreme Court of the Jews, was especially considered to be above partisan feelings and its judgements were deemed to be the nearest approach to exact justice attainable through human wisdom and divine revelation to man. The enlightened rules and laws of Judea could have no possible place for a partial or biased tribunal.

But the record reads:

"After two days was the Feast of the Passover, and of the unleavened bread; and the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might take him and put him to death.

"Then assembled together the chief priests and the scribes and the elders of the people unto the palace of the High Priest, who was called Caiaphas, and consulted that they might take Jesus by subtlety and kill him."

This record shows, not a merely general enmity or personal hatred toward Jesus, but a direct interest on the part of the judges, a conspiracy by them to accuse Christ and to have him executed, and their subsequent conduct shows that the manner of carrying out such conspiracy was by a trial in which they were the judges. Consequently, it is my contention that the court which first tried Christ was unlawfully constituted because it was composed of judges who had pronounced the judgment of death against him in advance of trial and who were actually conspiring to encompass his execution.

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II. THE ARREST

On the first day of the feast of the unleavened bread or the Passover, Jesus and his disciples celebrated the feast in the institution of what we now call the Lord's Supper. After the feast, and in the evening, he went with his disciples into the garden of Gethsemane to pray. He saw his end approaching and he spent his few remaining hours in communion with his God. Three times he went apart from his disciples and three times he returned to find them sleeping. The third time he came out, Judas arrived, with a multitude from the chief priests and elders of the people, and betrayed him with a kiss. This multitude was composed of Roman soldiers, Temple guards and some of the members of the Sanhedrim. And they laid hands on him and took him.

A short time before this, Jesus had publicly come up from Galilee. He had entered Jerusalem on Palm Sunday, attended by a great concourse of his followers. He had openly taught in the temple and confounded the scribes. Consequently, there was ample opportunity for a formal accusation against him and his arrest in the day time. He was not, at the time of his arrest, engaged in the commission of any criminal act. He was not even teaching his gospel. He had been engaged in prayer. Under no provision of the Jewish law was there legal authority for his arrest without a formal accusation being first made against him. Jesus knew his arrest was unlawful and he reminded the members of the Sanhedrim present of their breach of the law when he uttered that gentle rebuke:

"Are ye come out as against a thief with swords and staves for to take me ? I sat daily with you teaching in the temple and ye laid no hold on me "

I do not contend that the illegality of arrest was sufficient to prevent Jesus' being brought to trial. It would not result in an illegal judgment if the subsequent proceedings were in accordance with the law. But it is important as indicating the length to which the Sanhedrim went in furtherance of their conspiracy and as being added proof of the disqualification of the judges for interest and bias.

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III. THE TRIAL BEFORE THE SANHEDRIM

Saint John says "They led Jesus away to Annas first, for he was the father-in-law of Caiaphas, the High Priest." The record is not very clear at this point. Some sort of an examination seems to have been conducted by the High Priest Caiaphas, either privately or in the presence of Annas, but as the examination was not fruitful, it is of no particular consequence.

Jesus was then taken to the house of the High Priest, where the chief priests and the scribes and the elders were assembled. Whether this was an extraordinary occasion warranting a trial in the palace of the High Priest is subject to grave differences of opinion and therefore will not be dwelt upon. You will bear in mind, however, that this was in the night-time, when no trial could legally be had of a capital offence, and at the time of the Feast of the Passover, when no criminal trial of any kind could be conducted. Under the Jewish law, the whole of the proceedings of the trial of Jesus before the Sanhedrim were invalid, as much so as if a court in this state should try and convict a person of crime on Sunday. The judgement would be void.

Nevertheless, Jesus was arraigned at the bar of the Sanhedrim for trial. No formal accusation was even then made against him. But in order to preserve the semblance of a trial, witnesses were presented. The record reads: "The chief priests and elders sought false witnesses to put Jesus to death." They found none because, although there were many false witnesses, they did not agree together. It was necessary, in order to convict, that there be two witnesses agreeing in all respects in their testimony. Two witnesses were finally found. Matthew's version of their testimony is that Jesus had said "I am able to destroy the temple of God and to build it in three days." Mark differs in the language used and narrates it as "I will destroy this temple made with hands and in three days I will build another without hands." Both of the Evangelists say the witnesses were false witnesses and Mark further says they did not agree together.

St. Mark's claim of disagreement between the witnesses is not, according to the record, entitled to any legal weight. The record affirmatively shows that the witnesses agreed upon Christ's statement. The only disagreement appearing in the record is that between Matthew and Mark as to what the testimony was.

Nor is there support in the record for the designation of the two as false witnesses. The testimony they gave was not strictly accurate, it is true, because what Christ had said was "Destroy this temple and in three days I will raise it up." But he was then speaking in the temple at Jerusalem, which was the Jewish temple of God. And it is not to be expected that the Jews understood that he "spake of the temple of his body" in making the remark, as it is apparent his own disciples did not so understand his words until after he had risen from the dead. The version given by the witnesses, particularly as narrated by Matthew, was substantially a correct rendition of the meaning which would ordinarily be gathered from the words used and the place in which they were said. Substantial accuracy is all that can be expected of a witness narrating what was said by another at a previous time.

The record does not show that the witnesses were cautioned to forget no testimony favorable to the accused, warned of the sanctity of life, or that they took the oath. As these were customary details in the trial of all criminal offences, it is probable there would be a presumption that they were fully observed. It appears, however, that no counsel had been appointed for Jesus and the judges were seeking witnesses against him instead of in his behalf, as was their legal duty.

After this testimony, the High Priest demanded of Jesus: "Answereth thou nothing ? What is it which these witness against thee?" And Jesus held his peace. If this demand was a call upon him to testify against himself, it was illegal as no accused person could be so called upon. If it was an announcement by the High Priest, who presided over the court, that the prosecution had finished and the defense would be heard, Jesus had the right to hold his peace. The requirements of the law had not been observed in his behalf, in the composition of the court, its time of meeting or in the procedure. Whether a crime had been charged may be doubted but it was evidently not a very serious matter as the High Priest immediately abandoned the charge and proceeded along another line. Christ was not condemned by the Sanhedrim on the charge testified to by the two witnesses.

That the High Priest was, in fact and illegally, seeking to require Jesus to testify against himself is, I think, conclusively shown by the fact that upon Christ's refusing to testify, the High Priest then besought him with the most solemn adjuration which could be put to a Jew, one which he was obliged to answer "I adjure you by the living God that thou tellest us whether thou be the Christ, the Son of God." Mark does not relate this incident as an adjuration but states the question to have been "Art thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed?" In either case, it was a call upon the prisoner to testify against himself and was illegal.

To this demand, Jesus answered: "Thou hast said; nevertheless I say unto you, hereafter shall ye see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power and coming in the clouds of heaven." Immediately the High Priest rent his garments saying "He hath spoken blasphemy; what further need have we of witnesses ? Behold, now ye heard his blasphemy. What think ye ?" And they said "He is guilty of death."

And they jeered and mocked at him, spit in his face and buffeted him, and, covering his head with a cloak, struck him and asked him to prophecy who had struck him. Imagine a scene of this kind in the highest court of the land, where the most dignified personages of the day were in attendance, if justice were the object of the proceeding.

The illegalities of this trial were many. The judges had denied Christ the presumption of innocence, with which the law invested him, and had adjudged him guilty in advance of trial; the court was held in the night-time and on a feast day; no counsel had been appointed for the accused; he had been convicted, not upon the testimony of two witnesses, but upon his own testimony given upon the demand of the High Priest and, according to Matthew, after the adjuration which a Jew could not refuse to heed; the judges had sought witnesses against him instead of in his favor; the vote had not been taken in the manner prescribed by law; the High Priest, who should have spoken last, with a dramatic rending of his garments, expressed his opinion first and called upon the others to confirm it; the verdict of guilty was pronounced at once, without the intervention of the day of fasting and prayer and religious meditation.

The Sanhedrim itself recognized the illegality of its own procedure in holding a night session and, as soon as it was day, held another meeting. At this meeting, as recounted by St. Luke, they all propounded the question to Jesus whether he was the Christ. And when he said he was, they said "What need we any further witnesses? for we ourselves have heard of his own mouth. And the whole multitude arose and led him unto Pilate." It is unnecessary to point out that this day meeting was not legal. It is subject to all the objections made against the one held during the night before except that it was held in the day time.

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IV. THE TRIAL BEFORE PILATE

The trial before Pontius Pilate, the Roman Governor, began at the hall of judgement in the early morning. It was held in the open air as the Jews would not enter the hall on the feast day for fear of being defiled. This is not the only instance in history of where a precise observance of the forms of religion or ethics has attended an example of man's inhumanity to man. Christ was brought before Pilate because the Sanhedrim had no power to put him to death without the approval of the Roman Governor.

When they brought Jesus to the hall of judgement, Pilate went out to them and said "What accusation bring ye against this man?" Thus he made an express demand for a statement of the charges. The priests made no specific charge but answered: "If he were not a malefactor we would not have delivered him up unto thee." Pilate said to them: "Take ye him and judge him according to your law." And they replied: "It is not lawful for us to put any man to death."

This colloquy indicates that the Jews were then seeking only to obtain the approval of the Governor to the sentence of death for blasphemy which the Sanhedrim had determined upon. While it was the duty of the Roman Governor to pass upon all cases where it was sought to impose the death penalty, it was the frequent practice, in order to avoid friction with the native authorities as far as possible, to approve the sentence without investigation and as a matter of form. The failure of the priests to make a definite accusation in answer to Pilate's question was apparently a hint to him that such a practice would be very acceptable to the Sanhedrim in this particular case.

There are several entirely patent reasons for Pilate's refusing to act upon the hint. He knew that "for envy they had delivered" Christ to him. He seems to have evidenced a considerable respect for Jesus, of whose activities he had heard. Being a Pagan, he could hardly be expected to wax indignant over superstitious differences. Knowing the charge was conceived in envy and not apparently deeming the matter of any particular consequence, he had little sympathy with their purpose. Hence his contemptuous advice to try Jesus according to the Jewish law under which he knew the death penalty could not be inflicted.

The priests also knew that a charge of blasphemy would meet with little favour from the pagan Governor and, accordingly, they concealed their true complaint and made against Christ the accusation of treason against the Roman state.

"We found this man perverting the nation and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, saying that he himself is Christ, a king."

Such an accusation could not, obviously, be dismissed without investigation by the Governor. In addition to his administrative powers, he was a judge, with power to try, condemn and execute. Declining to exercise his administrative and discretionary powers in favour of the death penalty for blasphemy upon the conviction by the Sanhedrim, he was bound, as a judge, to determine this new charge of treason against the Roman State in accordance with the laws of Rome for the trial of criminal cases. The record shows that he endeavoured so to do.

When Christ was so accused by the chief priests and the elders, he answered nothing. Why ? The charge was of a triple nature, (1) perverting the nation, (2) forbidding to pay tribute to Caesar, and (3) claiming to be a king. The charge of perverting the nation was too indefinite to be specifically answered. The charge of forbidding to pay tribute was false and his accusers knew it. That very week when the Pharisees, trying to entrap him, had asked him whether it was lawful to pay tribute to Caesar, he had answered, "Render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things which are God's." The charge of claiming to be a king was of a double nature, having both a political and a religious aspect, and he waited for the specifications of what was meant. Pilate, as will be seen, ignored the charge regarding the payment of tribute and conducted the trial solely upon the charge of Christ's claiming to be a king, regarding that as what was meant by the allegation of perverting the people.

He took Jesus into the judgment hall, away from the others, and examined him privately. His first question was "Art thou the King of the Jews ?" Jesus sought immediately to know whether Pilate was proceeding with the trial from a political or a religious standpoint and answered by himself asking a question: "Sayest thou this thing of thyself or did others tell it thee of me?" The purport is whether Pilate's question referred to a king as he understood the term and in the sense that Caesar was a king or as the Jews understood it, as a Messiah. Pilate was not concerned with the religious controversy. He made it plain that he asked the question only in a political sense and, impatient at being questioned by a Jew, peremptorily demanded: "Am I a Jew? Thine own nation and the chief priests have delivered thee unto me. What hast thou done ?" Jesus answered the question in both ways explaining, in a political sense, that he was not a rival of Caesar because his kingdom was not of this world but, in a religious sense, that he was a king in the kingdom of truth. And Pilate, without waiting for answer, asked that brooding question which has haunted free men with free minds since the beginning of time, "What is truth?" They went out of the judgment hall and, before the whole of the assembled people, Pilate solemnly pronounced a verdict of not guilty. "I find no fault in him at all."

In a legal way, the case was then ended. Under our modern system of jurisprudence, we have a maxim that no man shall be twice put in jeopardy for the same offence. That maxim was part of the Roman law long before and after the time of Christ, was adopted from thence into the common law of England and became the heritage of American jurisprudence. Pilate's judgment, pronounced after investigation and before the accusers, was final. All proceedings thereafter upon the same charge were illegal.

But the people were not appeased. Either in reiteration of their former charge or as a new complaint, they became "more fierce," saying, "He stirreth up the people, teaching throughout all Jewry, beginning from Galilee to this place."

Herod, the Governor of Galilee, was then in Jerusalem. Pilate, finding that Jesus was a Galilean, sent him to Herod for trial. This could be legally done. Frequently changes of venue were ordered to the jurisdiction of the prisoner's home. The common opinion seems to be that Pilate sent Jesus to Herod in order to escape the responsibility of further trying him and to shift the burden of the trouble which was gathering. Whether this is true, I do not know. But inasmuch as the complaint then made was that Christ had been stirring up the people of Galilee, it is not unreasonable to suppose that Pilate, having found him not guilty of crime in Jerusalem, might desire that the Governor of Galilee pass upon him claimed violation of law in that jurisdiction.

Christ was taken to Herod, who was glad to see him because he wanted him to perform some of the miracles of which Herod had heard, to act the mountebank. Christ refused to say anything. And the chief priests and scribes accused him before Herod. While the particulars of this accusation are not set out, it was evidently regarding Christ's claim to be a king, as Herod mocked him, arrayed him in a gorgeous robe and sent him back to Pilate. Evidently Herod did not consider the charges serious nor proved. And Herod was a Jew.

Upon Jesus' return, Pilate summoned the chief priests and the rulers and the people together and once more pronounced a deliberate judgment of acquittal.

"Ye have brought this man unto me as one that perverteth the people; and behold, I, having examined him before you, have found no fault in this man touching those things whereof ye accuse him. No, nor yet Herod; for I sent to him; and lo, nothing worthy of death is done unto him. I will chastise him and release him."

From a legal standpoint, the decision of Pilate to chastise Jesus may be justified upon only one theory. Pilate, the judge, having found Christ not guilty of crime against Caesar, transferred the case to Pilate, the Governor and Administrator, whose duty it was to pass upon the sentence of the Sanhedrim. Having found that Christ had done nothing "worthy of death," he accepted the verdict of guilty passed by the Sanhedrim but modified the sentence and substituted for death, the penalty of scourging, as he had the power to do.

The non-legal and generally accepted theory, however, seems to be that Pilate's action was taken merely for the purpose of appeasing the people, who were insistent in their desire to punish Christ, and his statement that he would then release him was evidently an invitation to the people to ask his release. It was the custom at the Feast of the Passover to release a prisoner to be selected by the people. Pilate, finding Christ not guilty, to give force to his implied invitation and to make the selection sure, offered them the choice of Christ or the most vicious criminal in the prisons, Barabas. And the people, being incited by the priests and the elders, chose Barabas.

Pilate thereupon took Jesus and scourged him; and the soldiers spit upon him and mocked him and crowned him with thorns.

Under either theory, the judgement was final and the case ended. If the decision was a complete verdict of not guilty, the sentence of scourging was unjustified and illegal. If it was an approval of the verdict rendered by the Sanhedrim, it was the pronouncement of sentence upon that verdict and the sentence, having been fully executed, was a complete bar to any further proceedings.

After the scourging, Pilate brought Jesus before the people again, wearing the purple robe which had been placed upon him in mockery and with the crown of thorns upon his head and a third time pronounced a verdict of not guilty.

"Behold I bring him forth to you, that ye may know that I find no fault in him." When Jesus appeared, Pilate, seeking to awaken in the hearts of the people some feeling of pity for the just and blameless man, presented him to those assembled, "Behold the man." And his efforts to arouse pity met with that same response which has usually been given by those who are consumed by partisan hatred, "Crucify him, crucify him."

In this scene, however, there is one redeeming feature. The people who, having been urged by their leaders to demand the crucifixion of Christ, had been insistent in such demand, were silent. They pitied him as he stood there. Only the leaders, the chief priests and the officers, then cried "Crucify him."

Once more Pilate, angry at the insatiable vindictiveness of the leaders, pronounced the verdict of not guilty, this time, in the verdict, directly challenging them to themselves assume the responsibility of executing Christ.

"Take ye him and crucify him; for I find no fault in him."

And they answered: "We have a law and by our law he ought to die because he made himself the Son of God."

The reason for this statement by the priests is not very clear to me. They do not now seek to have the sentence of the Sanhedrim confirmed. They seek the punishment of crucifixion under authority of Rome. Religious claims would have but little force with the pagan Governor, accustomed to the worship of many gods. It may have been an involuntary statement justifying their vindictiveness, under the biting challenge of Pilate. But the explanation which seems most reasonable to me that it was an argument in justification of their attitude, addressed to the people who had apparently begun to pity Christ, to impress upon them the fact that Jesus had been guilty of blasphemy against the Jewish religion and to turn their pity into antagonism. In no way could they more surely arouse the resentment of the people than by the accusation that Jesus claimed kinship and equality with Jehovah.

The statement had the effect of attracting the attention of Pilate. Believing in the pagan myths of the gods and the sons of the gods leaving the celestial spheres and commingling with human beings upon the earth, taking the forms of humans but still retaining their divine power, he became afraid lest Jesus be the son of Jupiter or one of the other gods, and again questioned him in private. While his curiosity was not entirely satisfied, he was so impressed that "from thenceforth Pilate sought to release Jesus," a most proper attitude on the part of the Roman Governor and Judge, in view of the numerous judgements of not guilty he had pronounced.

His efforts were unavailing. The argument of the leaders, appealing to the religious instinct and teachings of the people, convinced them that Jesus should die. With cunning malignity, they presented to Pilate the last and convincing argument.

Pilate's administration as Governor had not been entirely free from corruption and extortion. Investigation might disclose irregularities. Tiberius was a suspicious Caesar, who believed without proof and delighted to humiliate and punish. Complaint to Caesar was practically equal to condemnation by Caesar. And Pilate feared complaint. Caesar's friendship was a most powerful but most unstable support.

Unable to convince Pilate as a judge and not being able to accomplish the death of Jesus through the forms of the law, the rulers attacked him through political argument, with veiled hint of complaint to Rome.

"If thou let this man go, thou art not Caesar's friend; whosoever maketh himself a king, speaketh against Caesar."

The trial was ended. The judge vacated his office, and gave way to the time-serving and fearful politician.

Pilate took water and washed his hands before the multitude, saying "I am innocent of the blood of this just person; see ye to it." And "he delivered him to be crucified."

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NO VERDICT OF GUILTY

There was no verdict of guilty. Even as the soldiers led him away to the execution, the words of the judge hung on the air, pronouncing him a just person, not guilty of the charges made against him. He was not legally executed. He was murdered, either judicially or politically, it matters not which.

In telling the story of the trial of Christ, I have dovetailed together the various accounts as related in the four gospels in such a way as to most clearly present my conception of the legal propositions involved, each of the accounts being incomplete. The conclusion is irresistible that Jesus was never legally condemned by any court. In the Sanhedrim, he was tried by partisan judges, acting at an illegal time, with illegal procedure and pronouncing its judgement illegally. Moreover, its sentence was disapproved by the officer having legal authority to pass upon it and another sentence, within his power and discretion, was inflicted instead. Before Pilate, he was four or more times pronounced innocent; he was never found guilty of any crime and he was executed without warrant of law. Before Herod, he had also been pronounced not guilty of the charges made against him. He was the victim of religious hatred, going to his death to satisfy the demands of those who feared to let men think.

To read the story of the trial occupies only a few minutes. It is impossible to answer all the questions which surge into the mind as one reads. The account is short, told plainly and with almost legal calmness. Yet the story, as it is told, is of infinite sadness. The injustice toward the central figure is heart-rending. But what is infinitely more pathetic is that through the whole tragic scene, there is no man, save one, who measures up to stalwart and loyal manhood. It may be that the story is not all told. It may be that under the merciless glare of the white light of Christ's character, men seem only base. Certainly, among the Romans whose ideals of justice were of the noblest character, among the leaders and rulers of the Jews who worshipped Jehovah with devotion, among the vast crowds who followed Jesus, among the disciples who had lived with him and from his own lips had heard his gospel and who afterwards endured martyrdom for his sake, there was a man. It is hard to believe that the story has been all told.

In conclusion, let me merely suggest an idea, told in legal language and illustrated from the trial we have just considered.

Sometimes, people are prone to condemn the forms of procedure in our courts. Indignant because of the circumstances or character of a crime, they immediately pronounce the accused guilty and are impatient with the forms and presumptions with which he is invested by law and in which it is the business of the court to protect him. The forms of procedure in courts are the best expression of the settled judgement of experts in the orderly conduct of a trial designed to arrive at the truth. They change slowly because they should always progress, never retrogress. They must always further protect against injustice rather than foster it. So long as they remain, they ought to be most jealously followed. Life and liberty are too sacred to be destroyed by the clamour or passion of the moment. Had the forms of the law been followed in the trial of Christ he would, in all probability, not have been condemned and executed.

In private life, also, brethren, should we strictly observe the forms and spirit of the law. We often try, before the bar of our prejudices, those who do not conduct themselves strictly in accordance with our own dogmatic views and, without proof or a chance to be heard, condemn them and demand that they be crucified by the Pilate of public opinion. Sometimes, we may even drag them out of the agony of another Gethsemane at night to pronounce our judgement and demand their social or political or civic death. And for aught we know, they may be princes in the kingdom of truth.

Let us arraign men only before the bar of the Sanhedrim of our consciences. Let no passion, desire or evil feeling prejudice the court. Let us hold them innocent until proved guilty. Let the witnesses be two, and not false witnesses, who must agree together. Let us appoint our Charity counsel for the accused and admit testimony freely in their favour. If our verdict be not guilty, let us proclaim it at once and loudly. If it be guilty, let it be pronounced only after a day of fasting, prayer and meditation. Even after the judgement has been given, let the court of our Humanity remain in session and the signal flags be set from the judgement hall to the place of execution. And as the one we have condemned is being led away to judgement, let the first fleeting witness of fact, doubt or rumour in his favour stay the execution and a new trial be granted. Paraphrasing what was said of the Sanhedrim, let it be said of us "He seeks to save character, not to destroy character."

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OPINION AND ACTION ON MILITARY LODGES BY GRAND MASTERS

In response to an enquiry sent out from the Secretary's Office to the Grand Master of every State and Province in the United States and Canada asking for a report of any action taken by the Grand Lodges or Grand Masters in the formation of Military Lodges, or, where no action had been taken, the personal opinion of the Grand Master as to the advisability of such Lodges being authorized, the following replies have been received and are published for the information of our members.

Additional replies are being received in each mail, which will be published in the January issue as those here given have taken all the available space for this month. If your State or Province does not appear here, look for it in the January number.

ALABAMA - WOULD CAUSE JURISDICTIONAL COMPLICATIONS

I have granted no dispensation for the formation of Army or Military Lodges.

To grant such dispensation while our men are in America would be to authorize the invasion of the jurisdiction of some sister Grand Lodge, and even if that Grand Lodge made no formal complaint or protest, the invasion would be no less real and illegal, and might easily endanger the comity now existing between us.

Even for Lodges held in Franee, where we are not in fraternal relations with the Grand Orient, I doubt the expediency of such Lodges, or that they would accomplish the purpose for which they are intended. Present experience with the methods of re-organizing and consolidating troop units make it seem certain that the changes and re-adjustments will leave men from a particular state so distributed that the Army Lodge would be of little or no benefit.
Walter Smith, Grand Master.

ARKANSAS - WILL CO-OPERATE IN ANY PLAN TO PROVIDE MASONIC INTERCOURSE FOR BRETHREN AT THE FRONT

I endorse the war, and the truly Masonic principle of unselfish service to the cause of Liberty and democracy, so ably presented to the World by our President, for his nation and people. Therefore, the men fighting the battles have my first and deep concern.

I favour the plan of providing Masonic intercourse for the brethren at the front, and affording those, found worthy, desiring to unite with this brotherhood, Lodge facilities to do so. It is my earnest wish and desire to co-operate to the fullest extent in whatever plan or plans will best promote the desirable result.
J. S. Reamey, Grand Master.

COLORADO - GRAND LODGE HAS AUTHORIZED GRAND MASTER TO GRANT DISPENSATIONS BUT NONE YET ISSUED

In answer to your enquiry I desire to say that the Grand Lodge delegated the right to the Grand Master to institute such Military Lodges as he, in his judgement, might think were for the interest of the Craft. Up to the present time no dispensation has been issued to such lodges. There is, however, a movement on foot to organize a Colorado Military Lodge in of one the units now in the service of the Government.

There is one obstacle in granting a Military Lodge for Colorado Masons; we are not sure that enough of Colorado men will be located in the same place, regiment or division to support a lodge. It is a question, which has not apparently been opened, if a Military Lodge formed by the Grand Lodge of one state can justly take soldiers from another state into the lodge. Without discussing the point I will say I must be reasonably assured that enough Colorado material will be available to form a lodge and to maintain it before I will look with favor upon the organization. As mentioned before, a Military Lodge is now forming in one of the camps, but no dispensation has as yet been issued. L.D. Grand Grand Master.

CONNECTICUT - PREPARED TO ISSUE DISPENSATION

The Grand Lodge of Connecticut has taken no action on the question of the Military Lodges. As Grand Master I am prepared to issue a dispensation under suitable regulations to hold a lodge in France or elsewhere in the field if desired. Not having issued such a dispensation I have not carefully considered the particulars.
L.J. Nickerson, Grand Master.

GEORGIA - AFTER INVESTIGATION OF PRECEDENTS IS OPPOSED TO MILITARY LODGES

When my attention was first called to the matter of Military Lodges, I felt strongly inclined to issue dispensations for same, Lodges to continue under dispensations during the war. Before doing so, however, I thought best to investigate the matter more thoroughly, get what information I could with reference to Military Lodges during the Civil War. After a thorough investigation, I have fully decided that I will not issue a dispensation for a Military Lodge.

I find that during the Civil War, the Military Lodges in existence took in every person who applied regardless of their character or anything else. I find further that very few of these Lodges ever reported to the Grand Lodge under whose jurisdiction they were supposed to work. No record made after the war anywhere of any work done by these Lodges. Owing to the fact that a great deal of very undesirable material was received by these Lodges, the natural result was the Masonic order was in extremely bad odor in many sections.

I find that the best posted Masons in our jurisdiction are opposed to Military Lodges.

I await with much interest the ideas and opinions of Grand Masters in other jurisdictions.
Frank O. Miller, Grand Master.

ILLINOIS - DOUBTS NECESSITY FOR MILITARY LODGES, SUGGESTS MASONIC CLUBS

I have been approached by a number of brethren with reference to granting dispensations for lodges to be known as Military Lodges and to be operated in connection with some military organization or unit. There is nothing in our law that permits a Grand Master to grant such a dispensation and I so advised the brethren who came to me in this regard. Some of these brethren wanted a dispensation for a lodge to have all the powers of the lodges now in existence, that is, to transact the ordinary business of a lodge, receive and act upon petitions, and confer the degrees. Others wanted to organize for the purpose of transacting the ordinary business of a lodge but without acquiring any jurisdiction over candidates for the degrees. It was their desire to have an organization where they would enjoy the fraternity and good fellowship of meeting together, and to confer degrees upon candidates who had been elected in regular lodges, this work to be done only upon request coming from the mother lodge through the proper channels.

To my mind there is some doubt as to whether there is any necessity whatever for lodges in connection with the military or naval activities of this government. With reference to the question of lodges of this kind having jurisdiction to receive and act upon petitions, I am of the firm belief that this should not be permitted by any jurisdiction, and I am sure that if a lodge holding a charter of this character from some other jurisdiction should invade Illinois, by holding meetings within its jurisdiction and receive and act upon petitions, this Grand Lodge would resent it, and I cannot understand how any Grand Lodge could defend such action. Lodges organized without any jurisdictional rights would of course be much less objectionable, but the opportunity for supervision over lodges of this kind is very limited and it has been demonstrated to the satisfaction of all that the method of observation now in vogue in Illinois has a very beneficial effect and I am of the opinion that there is danger in granting dispensations or charters to lodges situated so that there can be no supervision. All of this is from a Masonic point of view.

From a military point of view the question arises as to whether organized institutions of this kind within the military or naval forces of the government would have a beneficial effect or not upon the discipline. I have given a great deal of thought to this question and have had considerable correspondence with Grand Masters of other jurisdictions and have come to the conclusion that there is no occasion for the granting of charters or dispensations for military lodges. If the members of the fraternity located in a particular camp, regiment, fort, on board a battleship or at some training camp, believe that it would be desirable to have a Masonic organization, they can, if permitted to do so by the military authorities, organize a club, which to my mind will serve all of the purposes of a lodge.
Ralph W. Wheeler, Grand Master.

IOWA - PRACTICALLY IMPOSSIBLE TO KEEP PROPER RECORD OF MILITARY LODGES

In re Military Lodges, the Grand Lodge of Iowa has not authorized any Military Lodges and unless conditions very materially change, rendering such Lodges a necessity, none will be chartered.

There are many serious objections to the Military Lodge, which only necessity can overcome.

It is almost impossible to keep any proper record of a Military Lodge and most especially under the conditions of war in effect today.

There are so many lodges scattered throughout the United States that there certainly can be little demand for a Traveling Military Lodge under the conditions of present day warfare. Degrees are conferred by courtesy in nearly all of the lodges of the United States, so that any brother really desiring degrees can get them in a regularly authorized lodge no matter where he happens to be stationed. It is true that this necessitates considerable work, especially upon the lodges near the cantonments, but the Masons everywhere have arisen to their duties and are only too glad to confer these degrees when authorized to do so by the proper authorities.

These being the conditions, the Grand Lodge of Iowa as above stated will charter no Military Lodges at the present time.
John W. Barry, Grand Master.

KENTUCKY - TWO DISPENSATIONS GRANTED AND OFFICERS INSTALLED BY GRAND MASTER SAUNDERS - ONE LODGE MEETS ON A "HIGH HILL" IN THE OPEN

I am sending you the portion of my address to the Grand Lodge, as Grand Master, upon the subject, which shows my opinion. The Grand Lodge sustained me and continued the dispensations until the close of the war and the return of the Regiments. Upon request of the members of the Army Lodge the name Kentucky Rifle Lodge was changed to J.N. Saunders Army Lodge. J.N. Saunders.

From sixteen officers in the First Kentucky Infantry, Army of the United States, now the One Hundred and Fifty‑ninth United States Infantry, I received the following petition and made the following order thereon, viz: -

"To J. N. Saunders, Grand Master of The Grand Lodge of Kentucky, F. & A. M.:

We, the undersigned officers of the First Kentucky Infantry having volunteered our services to the country in the war now waged, and being about to depart for foreign lands for active service with the Army of the United States; we, each of us, being residents of Kentucky, Master Masons in good and regular lodge standing, under the jurisdiction of lodges subordinate to The Grand Lodge of Kentucky F. & A. M., not disturbing our present relationship to our home lodges, hereby ask a dispensation empowering us to meet as a Masonic lodge at or near the Military Stations of said Regiment of the United States Army and there practice the rites, perform the duties and enjoy the privileges of Masonry; and in said lodge to receive to membership, to initiate, pass and raise soldiers of said Regiment who are residents of Kentucky, who are found worthy and who possess all the requisite qualifications.

(Signed)
Wm. A. Colston, Fall City, No. 376.
I.L. Shulhafer, St. George, No. 239.
Harris Mallenckrodt, Phoenix, No. 31, N. C.
C.V. Williams, Aurora, No. 633.
F.J. Hardesty, Eminence, No. 282.
J.C. Barnes, Donovan, No. 292.:S
B.F. Ewing, Louisville, No. 400.
Geo. M. Cheschier, Louisville, No. 400.
Dan Carrell, Daylight, No. 760.
Walter Byrne, Jr., Russellville Lodge, No. 17.
H.F. Rives, Solomon, No. 5.
F.S. Wright, Solomon, No. 5.
Ellis Duncan, Daylight, No. 760.
Thompson Short, Lexington, No. 1.
Hubert E. Royalty, Breckenridge, No. 67.
Ben F. Offut, Preston, No. 281."

All of them residents of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, Master Masons in good and regular lodge standing, under the jurisdiction of lodges subordinate to The Grand Lodge of Kentucky F. & A. M., and officers in the First Kentucky Infantry, Army of the United States, now One Hundred and Fifty-ninth United States Infantry, summoned to active military service in a foreign land, not disturbing their present relationship to their home lodges, ask me for a dispensation empowering them to meet at or near their military stations as a Masonic lodge, and there to practice the rites, perform the duties and enjoy the privileges of Masonry, to receive to membership, to initiate, pass and raise soldiers of said Regiment who are residents of Kentucky, who are found worthy and who possess all the requisite qualifications.

The Master Masons who make this petition have evidenced the highest claim to all the rights and privileges possible to be granted under the constitution of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky; they have voluntarily offered their services and their lives in defence of their country, in vindication of the rights of outraged civilization, and in protection of peaceful homes, of guileless children and defenseless women against the most barbarous and faithless military tyranny the world has ever known.

The Dispensation Is Granted.

The petitioners are hereby authorized to open and hold a lodge of Free and Accepted Masons at or near the Military Stations of said Regiment to be known as

W.A. COLSTON ARMY LODGE

with jurisdiction not territorial and limited to residents of Kentucky in the service of the United States with the First Kentucky Infantry, now One Hundred and Fifty-ninth U. S. Infantry, I hereby designate Hubert E. Royalty to be Master, and I. L. Shulhafer, to be Senior Warden, and Wm. A. Colston, to be Junior Warden, of said Lodge, each of whom has been examined by me and found proficient in the work and lectures of the symbolic degrees of Masonry.

This Lodge shall be governed by the constitution and regulations of The Grand Lodge of Kentucky, F. & A. M., and the By-laws and Rules of Order as recommended by The Grand Lodge of Kentucky, F. & A. M., and published in the authorized Book of Constitutions, 4th Edition, pages 184-190.

All Past Masters admitted to this lodge to retain such rank therein as though Past Masters thereof.

Given under my hand and the seal of The Grand Lodge of Kentucky, F. & A. M., at Stanford, Kentucky, this 27th day of August, 1917. (Signed) J. N. Saunders, Grand Master.

On August 27, 1917, at Regimental Headquarters of the One Hundred and Fifty-ninth United States Infantry, at Camp Zachary Taylor, Louisville, Kentucky, with the assistance of the officers of The Grand Lodge of Kentucky, in the presence of most of the Past Grand Masters of this Grand Lodge, and a large company of distinguished Masons from different parts of the State, I opened W. A. Colston Army Lodge, and installed the officers thereof.

From the following eighteen officers and privates in the Second Kentucky Infantry, Army of the United States, I received a similar petition:

First Lieut. J. M. Harper, McKee Lodge, No. 144.
Captain E. B. Wise, Harlan Lodge, No. 879.
First Lieut. Ena W. Walker, Jackson Lodge, No. 731.
Captain George W. Jenkins, Whitesburg Lodge, No. 754.
First Lieut. A. C. Cope, Breathitt Lodge, No. 649.
First Lieut. Ura W. Bryant, Island Lodge, No. 743.
First Lieut. Carter D. Stamper, Proctor Lodge, No. 213.
First Lieut. Hiram Hogg, Jr., Booneville Lodge, No. 425.
Captain R.J.H. Spurr, Lexington Lodge, No. 1.
Captain F.W. Staples, Lexington Lodge, No. 1.
Major Robert W. Jones, Lexington Lodge, No. 1.
Sergeant James Bowling, Red Bird Lodge, No. 838.
Cook, Henry Evans, St. Helens Lodge, No. 684.
Corporal Charles Barker, St. Helens Lodge, No. 684.
Robert Stone, St. Helens Lodge, No. 684.
W.O. Bradley, St. Helens Lodge, No. 684.
Fred M. Curtis, Somerset Lodge, No. 111.
Sergeant John M. Bartley, Whitesburg Lodge, No. 764.

All of them residents of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, Master Masons in good and regular lodge standing, under the jurisdiction of lodges subordinate to The Grand Lodge of Kentucky, F. & A. M., and officers and members of the Second Kentucky Infantry, now the 160th U. S. Infantry, summoned to active military service in a foreign land, not disturbing their present relationship to their home lodges, ask me for a dispensation empowering them to meet at or near their military station as a Masonic Lodge, and there to practice the rites, perform the duties, and enjoy the privileges of Masonry, to receive to membership, to initiate, pass and raise soldiers of said Regiment, who are residents of Kentucky, who are found worthy, and who possess all the requisite qualifications.

The Master Masons who make this petition are the descendants of the home seekers who, bearing the rifle, the Bible and the ax, converted "No Man's Land" into one of the greatest of all the American States.

Masons of such descent, Masons who voluntarily answer their Country's call to patriotic duty, to hardships, to victory or to death are entitled to make such request.

The Dispensation Is Granted.

The petitioners are hereby authorized to open and hold a Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons at or near the Military stations of said Regiment, to be known as

KENTUCKY RIFLE LODGES

with jurisdiction not territorial, and limited to residents of Eentucky in the service of the United States with the Second Eentucky Infantry, now the 160th United States Infantry.

I hereby designate: Major Roger W. Jones, to be Master; First Lieutenant Joseph M. Harper, to be Senior Warden, Captain Keith B. Wise, to be Junior Warden, each of whom has been examined by me and found proficient in the work and the lectures of the symbolic degrees of Masonry.

This lodge shall be governed by the constitution and regulations of The Grand Lodge of Kentucky, F. & A. M., and the By-laws and Rules of Order as recommended by The Grand Lodge of Kentucky, F. & A. M., and published in the authorized Book of Constitutions, 4th Edition, pages 184-190.

All Past Masters, admitted to this lodge to retain such rank therein as though Past Masters thereof.

Given under my hand and the seal of The Grand Lodge of Kentucky, F. & A. M., at Stanford, Kentucky, this 25th day of September, 1917.

(Signed) J. N. Saunders, Grand Master."

On September 25, 1917, upon a high hill, in the open, overlooking Camp Stanley, near Lexington, Kentucky, guarded by military pickets who stood out of sight and hearing, and carefully tiled by two Master Masons, I opened Kentucky Rifle Lodge, U.D., installed its Master and Wardens, and, upon their appointment and election by the lodge, installed the remaining officers.

The love and the prayers of a grateful people go with the brave boys of these two lodges. They have voluntarily answered the greatest call our country can make to its patriotic sons, they have voluntarily enlisted in the holiest army that ever followed a battle flag. We, who sit at home in the place of safety, cannot, dare not, deny our soldier brothers, to the guardsmen of our homes, to the defenders of our country, the sweet ministration of Masonry in their shell swept camps, which we, in places of security, here at home enjoy.

I recommend the Grand Lodge continue these dispensations until the close of the war and the return of what will be the two battle scarred regiments.
J. N. Saunders. Grand Master.

MANITOBA - WOULD STRAIN A POINT TO ADD TO THE COMFORTS OF OUR SOLDIER BRETHREN

In this jurisdiction, we have not yet been asked to grant dispensation for a Military Lodge to go overseas, therefore the question has not been considered carefully in all its angles, and I do not know that I am therefore prepared to give an opinion in the matter as you request.

Personally, I would be inclined to strain a point if it were going to be of advantage to our soldier brethren and add to their comforts in any way. I do not see that any great harm can come from a military lodge working in France or any other country, providing they are taking members only from among the soldiers who went from the country from which they received their charter. I believe though, that a lodge of that kind should be limited to taking applications from people hailing from the jurisdiction it received its charter from, because owing to the principle of exclusive jurisdictions that we have established on this continent, it would not be fair to allow them to take applications from the people of the countries in which they might be residing.

These are briefly my views in the matter. I have not time to prepare an article such as you suggest. If this is of any service to you, you may use it in any way you wish.
P.E. Kellett, Grand Master.

MINNESOTA - NO ACTION BY GRAND LODGE - GRAND MASTER OPPOSED

The Grand Lodge of Minnesota has taken no action in the matter of the establishment of Military Lodges. Personally I am opposed to them.
Albert Berg, Grand Master.

MICHIGAN - NO OBJECTION TO LODGE TO WORK ONLY IN FRANCE WITHOUT POWER TO RECEIVE OR ACT ON PETITIONS

I have had only one application for a Military Lodge and have refused it because our Grand Lodge has held, during and since the Civil War, that exclusive jurisdictional sovereignty is a reciprocal, as well as sound, doctrine and has denied both the right of its own Grand Master to authorize lodges to work out of the state and the right of other Grand Lodges to authorize lodges to work in the state of Michigan, except by courtesy.

I think this position is sound and approved by the best authorities. If, however, a Military Lodge is chartered to work only in France, or in a recognized jurisdiction by courtesy alone, the powers of the lodge would have a considerable bearing on its advisability. In my judgement, it is not advisable to charter Military Lodges with power to receive and act upon petitions. The feature of promoting fellowship among Masons may be better taken care of by Masonic Clubs. It is not the duty of Masonry to afford the opportunity to become Masons to those who have evidenced no prior interest in it and contrary to the usual course. Military Lodges, according to the experience during the Civil War as shown by the correspondence reports of that period, however they may be originally restricted, soon become irresponsible, get lax in the admission of material and, because of frequent changes caused by the fortunes of war, do not remain in safe hands. The greatest duty of lodges after the war will be to take care of disabled brethren and their dependents. If our army now in training gets to the firing line, that duty will be so onerous that it will tax to the utmost the ability of lodges. The burden should not be increased by a lodge which goes out of existence at the end of the war, which has no future responsibility as to the conduct or care of its members and merely creates obligations for others to bear. If the lodge be authorized only to work degrees upon request of permanent lodges, the latter receiving and acting upon petitions and holding the members, the situation would be entirely different. I can see no objection to such a lodge if a feasible plan of membership and control be devised.
Louis H. Fead, Grand Master.

MISSOURI - GRAND LODGE REJECTS PROPOSITION

At the last meeting of the Missouri Grand Lodge, A. F. & A. M., held in St. Louis, September 19-21, 1917, the question of special or Military Lodges was taken up on a resolution introduced to establish such lodges, and to allow regular lodges in the state to shorten the time between the degrees in order that those who had been drafted might be made Masons before leaving. After a considerable discussion pro and con, the proposition was voted down by a very substantial majority.

There is no question as to advisability of the Grand Master of Missouri granting permission for the organization of such lodges or for shortening the time between the degrees, as the By-laws of our Grand Lodge strictly prohibit it and the Grand Master can do nothing contrary to the Grand Lodge Law.

I am well satisfied that the matter ended as it did for I am of the opinion that confusion would arise and the unworthy material that would probably creep in under such conditions would be very troublesome in the future and in the long run would possibly do more harm than good.
W. A Clark, Grand Master.

MONTANA - MONTANA ARMY LODGE NO. 1 CREATED SEPTEMBER 8th

A Dispensation creating Montana Army Lodge No. 1 was put into effect September 8th, 1917.

There is to be no Jurisdictional invasion. The Lodge cannot meet in any other State of the United States than Montana without first obtaining the consent of the Grand Master of that State.

The membership in the Military Lodge is that of Companionship only; affiliation with the lodges to which the brethren belong is not severed. Those made Masons thereunder, when the Dispensation is recalled (the Lodge is never to be chartered) will be given dimits by the Grand Secretary and will be required to deposit them in the Lodge nearest their home and petition for membership therein.

No one can be a Companion of the Lodge, or be made a Mason therein, unless at the time of his entering the service of the United States he was a citizen of the State of Montana.
F. D. Jones, Grand Master.

(COPY OF DISPENSATION)
T.T.G.O.T.G.A.O.T.U.
LETTERS OF DISPENSATION
IN THE NAME AND UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE
MOST WORSHIPFUL GRAND LODGE OF
ANCIENT, FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS
OF THE STATE OF MONTANA

To All to Whom These Presents May Come, Greeting:-

WHEREAS, The following named brethren who are Ancient Free and Accepted Masons and citizens and residents of the State of Montana, and members in good standing of Lodge under the jurisdiction of the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of Montana, and elsewhere throughout the globe, and who are in the military service of the United States of America, and forming a part of what is known as the "Second Montana Regiment," regularly enlisted in the services of the United States of America, now engaged in war with Germany and other nations,……………. have petitioned that they may be authorized to work as a temporary Lodge under dispensation, during said war, without disturbing their affiliations with the Lodges to which they belong in order that they may meet as Masons, and thus encourage the practice of our sublime principles while subjected to the trials and temptations of army life in time of war, and to regularly confer degrees upon proper applicants, and to lay to rest, with the honours of the Craft, any of their brethren who may fall while engaged in the service of their Country - and it appearing to be for the benefit of our Ancient and Honorable Order that their request be granted:

NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT KNOWN: That by the power in me vested as Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons of Montana, I hereby authorize our brethren aforesaid to open and hold a temporary Lodge of Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons, at the posts and camps of the Second Montana Regiment, or at some convenient place near the same, without invading any other Jurisdiction, and to be known as

"MONTANA ARMY LODGE NO. 1 UNDER DISPENSATION"

Vesting them with power to admit to companionship by affiliation in said Lodge, Masons serving in the armies and navies of the United States who are regularly affiliated in Lodges holding charter from the Grand Lodge of Montana, or, if affiliated elsewhere, echo were at the time of entering the service of the United States, citizens of the State of Montana; to enter Apprentices, pass Fellow Crafts and raise Master Masons, regularly from among such citizen soldiers aforesaid, as any Lodge under the jurisdiction of said Grand Lodge of Montana could do, excepting that the jurisdiction of said temporary Lodge hereby authorized is not territorial but is confined and limited to citizens of Montana in the service of the United States as before mentioned.

That this warrant shall not authorize the meeting or formation of a Lodge of Masons in any other State of the United States than Montana without first informing the Grand Master of said state and obtaining his consent to such meetings.

That no petition for degrees shall be received by said Lodge while within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States except from a person who at the time of his enlistment in the service was a bona fide resident of the State of Montana.

I hereby appoint Brother ….. to be Worshipful Master, Brother ….. to be Senior Warden, and Brother ….. to be Junior Warden of said temporary Lodge.

All actual Past Masters who may be hereby or hereafter admitted to companionship therein will retain their rank as if really Past Masters thereof, so that in case of the absence of the Master and Wardens, they may act as by law provided. In the event of the death or total disability of the Master and both Wardens herein named, while the Regiment is absent from the United States, the Lodge may, when regularly convened, elect to these offices from their members, and such persons so elected shall serve until the Grand Master has been notified and he shall thereupon appoint to fill vacancies.

I require that all of the said brethren and their associates be governed by the Constitution, laws, rules, edicts and regulations of the Grand Lodge of Montana, and all of the laws thereof, and to keep a record of their proceedings and promptly send a copy of the same (after each meeting) to the Grand Secretary, and make return as all other Lodges should do. In case of dissolution, from any cause, to promptly transmit all books, papers, money, or other property of said Lodge, with this dispensation, to said Grand Secretary. Further, at the termination of the service of any one holding "companionship" with said lodge who is not a member of some Montana Lodge of Masons, he and each agree to petition some Lodge near his residence for affiliation therewith; and all withdrawals (dimits) from the said "Montana Army Lodge" shall be obtained from the Grand Secretary of said Grand Lodge.

That for the purpose of aiding said Lodge in discharging its functions, and realizing the great service our brethren and those who may unite with them are performing for our country and our nation, I hereby suspend our statutory provisions with reference to minimum fees for the degrees, and hereby authorize said Lodge to fix said fees in such sums as it may find advisable.

This dispensation will continue in force at the will and pleasure of the Grand Master, and shall be subject to revocation at his pleasure.

LASTLY: The Master, Wardens, Past Masters and brethren in companionship with said Army Lodge, by accepting this Dispensation, solemnly engage and promise to conform to all of the foregoing requirements, whether expressed or implied, and at all times to hold themselves subordinate to, and under the jurisdiction of the aforesaid Grand Lodge of Montana.

IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF, witness my hand as Grand Master of the said Grand Lodge of Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons of the State of Montana, with the Seal of the said Grand Lodge, and the attestation of the Grand Secretary thereof.

Done in the Grand East in Helena, Montana, this eighth day of September, Anno Domini 1917, Anno Lucis 5917.

(SEAL)

……….
Grand Master.

ATTEST:
…………….
Grand Secretary.

The above Dispensation was put into force and effect at the Consistory-Shrine Temple at Helena, Montana, on September 8th, 1917, in the presence of Helena Lodge No. 3, Morning Star Lodge No. 5, and King Solomon's Lodge No. 9, under our jurisdiction, by

…………..
Grand Master.

NEW BRUNSWICK - SUBJECT HAS NOT BEEN DISCUSSED

The M.W. Grand Master of New Brunswick is at present out of the jurisdiction and, in his absence, I wish to say that no action has been taken in this Grand Lodge respecting Military Lodges; nor indeed has the subject been discussed. I know there are instances of England having, in the eighteenth century, chartered Lodges in connection with British regiments, but no doubt this is an historical matter with which you are familiar.
J. Twining Hartt, Grand Secretary.

NEW JERSEY - BY-LAWS OF THE GRAND LODGE PROHIBIT MILITARY LODGES

The establishment of Military Lodges is prohibited by the By-Laws of the Grand Lodge of New Jersey, which ruling will be in effect until the next session of the Grand Lodge, which will be in April, 1918.
William M. Thompson, Grand Master.

OREGON - MATTER NOW UNDER CONSIDERATION

In reply to your enquiry as to what steps, if any, have been taken by the Grand Lodge of Oregon on the question of establishing Military or Army Lodges, I beg to advise you that the matter is under consideration, but, up to the present time, no definite action has been taken.

Such conditions as confront us, at the present time, were evidently not contemplated in the Oregon Grand Lodge Law, and the only action which would apply in this situation is the granting of a Special Dispensation for an Army Lodge, which would only have Oregon material to draw from.

Personally, I am strongly in favour of our boys in the military service having the privilege and opportunity of fraternal associations with their fellows. We recognize the "necessity of congregating in Lodges" as one of the landmarks of Masonry, and if necessary to the member while in civil life, it is necessary to a greater degree to the brethren in the various war organizations, which are deprived of many of the privileges they were accustomed to in civil life.
W.G. Shellenbarger, Grand Master.

(Additional replies from Grand Masters in January number.)

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EDITORIAL

How Do We Know You To Be A Mason?

ONLY the other day we sat in an Eastern office when there came in an officer wearing the uniform of the army of the United States. He was not in the best health but looked of fine frame and training. So it proved.

But he had been very ill. Present-day demand is for the well and strong. None but the fittest are scheduled for the far-off front in Europe. Of late he was discharged from hospital. His condition caused him to be sent before a medical board of examination. The verdict recommended him for retirement.

Retirement, to a soldier of his fine fibre, was felt by him as a disgrace. In him thrilled the patriotic impulse at flood tide. His heart was in the front rank and an order for him to go to the rear was killing. What could be done for him to face the enemy and go forward ?

He was a Mason. To him the brethren were as patriotic and self-sacrificing as he himself. So to his brothers he came with the plea that wherever they could they should speak on his behalf, that his body and brain might go where his heart led on.

Are we like unto him? Do we ache to get in the game? Or do we discourage and decry the duty ahead ?

Masons! This is not the time to argue fastidiously with the crew or the captain. We are at sea in a storm. Fine-spun theories about navigation are all excellent maybe in port when at anchor but these are other days with pressing duties. Get busy on deck or go overboard!

What should be done with the fussy folk who stand worrying in the doorway when the house is afire ? One side with them !

Would you discuss the chemistry of combustion if a life were in danger from the flames? No! Your road would lie straight ahead and there you would go with a rush. Later on when all is calm is a permissible period for talking, then is the time to freely say your criticizing say. But not now !

Pay, don't say! We are Masons and Masons are patriotic and law-abiding or they are not Masons.

Every Study Club is a centre of citizenship or it is nothing.

Unless we see more than a strip of fabric in every flag, a bit of freedom in every thread of bunting or khaki uniform, the faith is not in us, and we are indeed undone.

Masonry is citizenship in action, putting every dollar of money and every drop of blood into the service of a greater brotherhood among all men.

Masonry is for solemn treaties kept, for womanhood respected, childhood protected, homes guarded, manhood maintained and honored.

Masonry is here and now with and for what was gained for us by George Washington, a heritage from him and the other Masons of early days, that is only worth while so long as Masonry lives up to his standards and follows in his footsteps.

Brother, where do you stand and what are you doing for the common cause at this great crisis?

Are you begging for a chance to serve? Or are you waiting to be asked to do your share? Maybe you are ill, or perhaps some examining board would turn you down for the exact thing you would like best to do.

Do what you can and all you can. At least you can speak a good word to the rest. Encourage everyone. Hearten all. Remember that unity is victory, concord spells success, every laggard is a break in our ranks. Masons, what came you here to do?
R.I.C.


Brethren of the Society:

America is at War. Every patriotic citizen, and I am one of them, believes that luxuries and unnecessary expenditures should be eliminated in the interest of our common National emergency. I therefore ask you the question, is our Research work a luxury or is it a worth-while endeavor? I believe that as we have defined it, it is a necessity. If we as Masons are to take part in support of our Country, we need now, more than ever before, to keep our Masonic principles clearly in view. The great lessons which our Fraternity is teaching have a real value in this crisis. To promote a clearer understanding of those lessons among our membership will be our aim in continuing THE BUILDER. If I am right in this - if the above opinion is held by the members of this Society, then we shall have your support in the form of your 1918 dues. Will you give us this evidence of your loyalty this month, if you have not already done so, and save us as much postage as possible?

Fraternally
Geo. L. Schoonover. Secretary.

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THE LIBRARY

Edited By Bro. H.L. Haywood

(The object of this Department is to acquaint our readers with time-tried Masonic books not always familiar; with the best Masonic literature now being published; and with such non-Masonic books as may especially appeal to Masons. The Library editor will be very glad to render any possible assistance to studious individuals or to study clubs and lodges, either through this Department or by personal correspondence; if you wish to learn something concerning any book - what is its nature, what is its value or how it may be obtained - be free to ask him. If you have read a book which you think is worth a review write us about it; if you desire to purchase a book - any book - we will help you get it, with no charge for the service. Make this your Department of Literary Consultation.)

The Cathedral Builders

A LITTLE REVIEW OF LEADER SCOTT'S BOOK

IN the great days of the Roman Empire, as we all know, the various trades were organized into collegia, or workmen's gilds; the carpenter's had theirs, the textile workers, the stone masons, the dyers, the physicians, the lawyers, even the priests. Each society had its central organization, its subordinate bodies, its common chest wherefrom help might be given to members in distress, and nearly all made some provisions for the burial of their dead.

Among these collegia none was more powerful than the fraternity of builders, whose art was then held as a secret to be made known only to the initiated. Whenever a public building was to be erected, a city to be laid out, a wall to build, or a bridge, the collegium of builders was called upon to do the work. So also with the enterprises of colonization. Many times the Roman army would carry a group of builders with it in order that they might the more readily set up some new town in a territory conquered by Roman arms. It was in this way that one collegium, at least, was carried as far as Britain where vestiges of its work are said to be still in evidence.

When the barbarians came down upon Rome and succeeded at last in sweeping everything before them, the collegia suffered shipwreck like almost everything else. What became of them all we do not know, we never will know. But it is a question of some urgency to us Masons who like to trace our lineage back through the centuries of builders to ask what became of the collegium of architects. Did they also perish from the face of the earth? If so, how do we account for the rise of architecture in Europe so soon after the invasion had run its course? Whence came the sudden skill to erect the beautiful churches of Italy and France long before the days of Charlemagne? Is it possible that there can be some link to unite the cathedral builders of Europe to the old collegia builders of Rome?

Now it is the theme of Leader Scott's book (Leader Scott was the pen name of a Mrs. Baxter of Florence) that there WAS a tie between the Roman collegium of masons and the early cathedral builders, and it is no difficult matter to condense her account of the matter in a paragraph or two.

Briefly put she holds that at the time of the general smash-up in Rome a group of trained Roman builders took refuge on an island in the little Italian Lake of Como. On this island, and in the more immediate neighbourhood, they remained for many years practising their ancient art in such small scale as circumstances permitted. At last, after the storm had blown over a bit they sallied farther forth until they at last found the freedom and the opportunity to resume their normal occupation.

Space does not avail to trace in detail anything of this emergence or the manner in which the old collegium, or fraternity, grew in numbers and strength until kings and emperors began once more to call them into service. Wherever they went, these Comacines, they established Lodges and they built schools in which young apprentices might be taught the secrets of the craft. In this wise they developed again not only the art of building but also carving, sculpture, and even painting, and they at last grew into the powerful gilds of the Middle Ages to which we owe these stately cathedrals of such solemn beauty over which this war has caused us to watch with anxious solicitude.

Now it is plain to see the importance of the story of the Comacines to us Masonic students. We trace our present organization back to the medieval cathedral builders; if the Comacines were the parent body of these medieval cathedral builders then are they the grandparents of Masonry, and it is through them that we trace our inheritance from the old Roman collegia. And also, if we can hold DaCosta's theory that the Roman Collegia received their initiation into the building art from the ancient Phoenician builders' fraternities then are the Comacines one link in the long historical chain which binds us up to the building of Solomon's Temple, for, as is now abundantly proved, it was the Phoenicians that erected Solomon's mighty house of worship.

Inasmuch as our purpose here is to describe the contents of a book and to indicate its significance to Masonry rather than to criticize, we shall attempt no analysis of Leader Scott's argument or to indicate any of its weaknesses. It may be said, however, that evidence is accumulating apace which may one day establish the Comacine theory in the true House of History.

(Leader Scott's book runs to more than 400 pages. To our members wishing a "boiled-down" version we recommend "The Comacines" by Brother W. Ravenscroft.)

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THE QUESTION BOX

(The Builder is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its contributors writes under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing that a unity of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society, as such, does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against another; but offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving each to stand or fall by its own merits.)

Works On Masonic Symbolism

I would like to enquire if there is published any work which treats exclusively of Masonic Symbolism, including that of the Blue, Chapter and Cryptic degrees? Something that I could use as a text-book on the subject. I have "Signs and Symbols" by Oliver, Mackey's Symbolism of Freemasonry as well as Mackey's Encyclopedia.
- J.T.C., California.

Yes, there are many works which treat of Masonic Symbolism though you already have some of the best and most complete. You might add Oliver's Landmarks, and his Dictionary of Symbolic Masonry. Macoy's Revision of Oliver's Dictionary is also good.

For a more extended study you might consider Bromwell's "Masonic Restorations," Thomas M. Stewart's "Symbolic Teaching," John T. Lawrence's "The Keystone," "Sidelights on Freemasonry," "By-ways of Freemasonry," and "Perfect Ashlar," F. Portal's "Comparison of Egyptian Symbolism with Hebrew," H. C. Barlow's "Essays on Symbolism," J. Finlayson's "Symbols and Legends of Freemasonry," J. G. Gibson's "Masonic Problem," A. S. McBride's "Speculative Masonry," P. Nicholson's "Symbolism of Freemasonry," Chas. H. Vail's "Symbols and Legends of Masonry," and C. M. Boutelle's "Man of Mt. Moriah." This by no means exhausts the list of such works, but it is enough to keep you busy for a time. The last named book is a novel, but it is full of Masonic Symbolism and is well worth reading.

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Masonic Literature Dealing With Grades of the Stone Age

I am glad you are engaged in such a worthy undertaking. I am now free to enter into the study of the Masonic sciences and devote some time to it and wish, indeed, more of our Brethren in my Lodge might do so. As I have received most of my knowledge of Masonry from scientific books not Masonic, I wish to ask you if there is any Masonic literature dealing with grades of the stone-age, as for instance, the passage grades in England and on the Danish island Tyen. If so, will you inform me, that I may secure such?
- A.P.O., California.

Thank you for your words of commendation. We are glad you can devote some time to Masonic sciences and trust you will be able to favor us with the result of your investigations. Our undertaking to be helpful must be mutual, each contributing his mite to complete and make perfect the structure of Masonic science. We are sorry to say that we do not know of any distinctively Masonic literature of the subjects named. You are doubtless familiar with the general scientific literature of the subject. If you find anything distinctively Masonic we will be pleased to be so advised. Can any reader of THE BUILDER furnish the information?

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Qualifications of Candidates

At the last meeting of our Study Club we took up the subject as found in the September BUILDER, "The Lodge and The Candidate - Proposing and Recommending," and some very interesting points came up and I was requested to write you for further information concerning the petition and recommending for a paper for our next meeting. Send us any suggestions you may have to offer.
- R.F.B., Iowa.

You will find the material you are looking for in the Jurisprudence table on page 70 of the March issue of THE BUILDER and also that on page 273 of the September issue. In the latter article, in most instances, are included portions of the law in various States having reference to the moral, intellectual and age qualifications of a Candidate.

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Books On Masonry

If you have any important public works or a list of books dealing on Masonry, I would like to have you submit the same to me with your recommendation as toy their importance.
- W.S.C., Texas.

See replies to J. T. C., California, and G. H. K., Minnesota, in this issue.

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Material For A Circulating Library

List of Masonic Magazines

With a view to starting a circulating library of Masonic literature, we would appreciate it very much if you would send us a list of twenty-five (more or less) of the most desirable Masonic books and a second list of periodicals.
- G.H.E., Minnesota.

On Symbolism see reply to J.T.C., California, in this issue.

On Ritual you should have the Monitor of your Grand Lodge. If your jurisdiction has no standard Monitor we would recommend Simons', Webb's, and Ahiman Rezon. The latter is the name given to the Monitor of the Grand Lodge of Ancients and has been followed with modifications by the states which followed the ritual of this Grand Lodge rather than that of the Moderns.

On Jurisprudence, Mackey and Lawrence each have a good work, and there is also Look's "Masonic Trials" and Lockwood's "Masonic Law and Practice." Also, do not overlook the Code of your jurisdiction.

On History, the best is now unobtainable, but there are some close seconds like Hughan and Stillson's "History of Freemasonry and Concordant Orders." L. Vibert's "Freemasonry Before the Existence of Grand Lodges," J. F. Newton's "The Builders," Pierson and Steinbruner's "Tradition, Origin and Early History of Freemasonry."

For general works on Masonry and allied subjects we would recommend W. M. Adams' "Book of the Master," and "House of the Hidden Places," A. F. Bloomer's "Ante Room Talks," J. D. Buck's "Mystic Masonry" and "Genius of Masonry," W.S. Caldecott's "Solomon's Temple," R. S. Clymer's "Ancient Oriental Masonry," E. S. Ellis' "High Twelve" and "Low Twelve," J. Fellows' "Mysteries of Masonry," G. F. Fort's "Antiquities of Freemasonry," Sidney Hayden's "Washington and His Masonic Compeers," W. F. Kuhn's "Chips from the Quarries," A.G. Mackey's "Encyclopedia of Freemasonry," "Masonic Symbolism," "Jurisprudence" and "Cryptic Masonry," L. A. McConnell's "Poems of the Temple," Robert Morris' "Masonic Poetry," Albert Pike's Poems, and "Morals and Dogma," Leader Scott's "Cathedral Builders," W. G. Sibley's "Story of Freemasonry," and A.L. Waite's "Secret Tradition in Freemasonry."

These are all desirable works and your choice from this list will depend largely upon your own preferences. Another very good list embracing some of the same publications was given on page 144, Vol. I of "The Builder."

The list of Masonic Publications follows:

LIST OF MASONIC PUBLICATIONS
(From N. R. Parvin's Report to Grand Lodge of Iowa in 1916.)

LIST OF MASONIC PUBLICATIONS
(From N. R. Parvin's Report to Grand Lodge of Iowa in 1916.)

Name Address Price Issued
El Paso Bulletin El Paso, Texas free distribution monthly
Algeria (Shrine Magazine) Helena, Montana free distribution monthly
American Tyler Keystone Owosso, Mich. $1.00 per year monthly
Annuity Messenger Atlanta, Ga .25 per year quarterly
The Ashlar Detroit, Mich .25 per year monthly
Bohemia Lodge Compass Chicago, Ill free distribution monthly
Brotherhood New York City 1.00 per year monthly
Builder Anamosa, Iowa 2.00 per year monthly
Crescent (Shrine Magazine) St. Paul, Minn 1.50 per year monthly
Duluth Masonic Calendar Duluth, Minn free distribution quarterly
Friendship Bulletin Detroit, Mich. .50 per year monthly
Gavel (Shrine Magazine) Portland, Oregon 1.50 per year monthly
Gavel Newburgh, N. Y .25 per year monthly
Illinois Freemason Bloomington, Ill 1.00 per year monthly
Illinois Masonic Review Arcola, Ill 1.00 per year monthly
Inter-State Freemason Kansas City, Mo 1.00 per year monthly
Kansas City Freemason Kansas City, Mo 1.00 per year weekly
Light Louisville, Ky. 1.00 per year semi-weekly
Long Island Masonic News Brooklyn, N. Y 1.00 per year semi-weekly
Malta Mallet Grand Rapids, Mich free distribution monthly
Masonic Bulletin Des Moines, Iowa 1.00 per year monthly
Masonic Bulletin Cleveland, Ohio 1.00 per year monthly
Masonic Chronicle Chicago, Ill 1.50 per year weekly
Masonic Fraternalist Chicago, Ill 1.50 per year weekly
Masonic Fund Hudson, Mass free distribution quarterly
Masonic Grand Lodge Bulletin Fargo, N. Dakota free distribution quarterly
Masonic Herald Rome, Ga 1.00 per year monthly
Masonic Home Journal Louisville, Ky 1.00 per year semi-monthly
Masonic Monthly Philadelphia, Pa 1.00 per year monthly
Masonic News Peoria, Ill 1.00 per year monthly
Masonic Observer Minneapolis, Minn 1.00 per year weekly
Masonic Review Tacoma, Wash free distribution quarterly
Masonic Standard New York City 2.00 per year weekly
Masonic Tidings Milwaukee, Wis 1.00 per year monthly
Masonic Tidings Winona Lake, Ind 1.00 per year monthly
Masonic Token Portland, Maine 12 per year quarterly
Masonic Trowel Little Rock, Ark 1.00 per year monthly
Masonic Voice Review Chicago, Ill 1.50 per year monthly
Masonic World Chicago, Ill. .50 per year monthly
Missouri Freemason St. Louis, Mo 1.00 per year weekly
Mystic Light (Negro) Rock Island, Ill 1.00 per year monthly
New Age Washington, D. C. 1.50 per year monthly
Ogden Park Good-Fellow Chicago, Ill free distribution monthly
Oriental Consistory Chicago, Ill free distribution weekly
Palestine Bulletin Detroit, Mich 1.00 per year semi-monthly
Plumb Line (Negro) Natchitoches, La 1.00 per year monthly
Rob Morris Bulletin Denver, Colo .50 per year monthly
Sanford Collins Lodge Bulletin Toledo, Ohio free distribution monthly
Scottish Rite Bulletin Louisville, Ky .50 per year monthly
Scottish Rite News Nashville, Tenn free distribution monthly
Sioux Falls Masonic News Sioux Falls, S. Dakota free distribution monthly
Southwestern Freemason Los Angeles, Cal 1.00 per year monthly
Square and Compass Denver, Colo. 1.00 per year monthly
Square and Compasses New Orleans, La 1.00 per year monthly
Tennessee Mason Nashville, Tenn .50 per year monthly
Texas Freemason San Antonio, Texas 1.00 per year monthly
Theosophical Path Point Loma, Cal 2.50 per year monthly
Trestle Board San Francisco, Cal 1.00 per year monthly
Trestle Board Detroit, Mich .50 per year monthly
Virginia Masonic Journal Richmond, Va 1.00 per year monthly
What Cheer Trestle Board Providence, R. I. .50 per year monthly
Zion News Detroit Mich. free distribution monthly
Canada
Freemason Toronto, Canada 1.00 per year monthly
Masonic Sun Toronto, Canada 1.00 per year monthly
Foreign
Freemason London, England 15s per year weekly
Masonic Journal Johannesburg, S. Africa 12s 6d per year monthly
Masters' and Past Masters' Lodge No. 130 Christchurch, N. Z. quarterly
Miscellanea Latomorum London, England 5s per year monthly
Review of Relizions Gurdaspur, India monthly

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MASONIC FUNERAL CEREMONIES

When a member of the Order dies and his relatives request that the Masonic Fraternity take charge of the remains, can other Lodges of which the deceased was a member, i. e. the Odd Fellows, Elks, etc., perform their ceremonies at the church? What Masonic authorities will give light on this subject?
- O. L., Colorado.

The "Colorado Craftsman," the official Masonic Monitor adopted by the Grand Lodge of Colorado, gives the reply to your query on page 104, as follows:

"Whenever other societies or associations, of which the deceased was also a member, desire to perform any ceremonies in the burial of a brother, they are not to be prevented from doing so. The Lodge will show them respectful consideration, and whatever ceremonies they may have must precede the taking charge of the body by the Lodge, or after the body is buried by the Craft.

"The remains must be in charge of the Lodge from the time it takes possession of the coffin, whether at the residence, church, or in some cases from the entrance to the cemetery, as occasion may require. The Lodge shall, under all circumstances, march in the rear of all other societies, and immediately precede the funeral car or hearse, and lead in all services at the grave and fully complete the burial."

You may obtain a copy of the "Colorado Craftsman" from the Secretary of your Lodge or from Brother Charles H. Jacobson, Grand Secretary, Room 319, Masonic Temple, Denver. It contains, besides the Masonic Burial Service, monitorial instructions of the degrees of Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft and Master Mason, ceremonies of installation of officers and an appendix giving the twenty-five Landmarks of Freemasonry according to Albert G. Mackey and the old "Charges of a Freemason." The price is $1.00.

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CORRESPONDENCE

Timely Suggestions That Should Be Observed By All Lodges

Occupying for centuries a commanding position in human affairs, having a great influence in the uplift of mankind, strong in its protestations and demonstration of fraternal love and equal rights, subjected to the most intense antagonism and enmities, Masonry has drawn to itself the notice of all the world.

Error which, in a lesser institution, would pass unremarked, is, in Masonry, in the opinion of a multitude of men, guilt or selfish indifference.

It is not a matter of regret but of infinite pride that the standards set by our brethren of former times are so lofty and the splendid character of our institution is so universally recognized that the world looks to us for great things, done as though they were common, and considers as failure in us what would be hailed as success in others.

The war has imposed upon Masonry great duties and obligations, to measure up to which is a great privilege. The world is watching to see how the institution will meet its problems. The fraternity is on trial. Now is the time to demonstrate to all men that Masonry is a living thing, not a matter of sounding words without meaning, and euphonious platitudes, but a strong, vibrant, virile institution worthy the confidence and respect of a full-grown man.

Each Grand Lodge has its own peculiar problems. It must direct its activities in a broad way, touching Masons largely in the mass, and offering the opportunity for service on the part of the lodges and brethren. From the very nature of its organization and its limitations, it can come but little into intimate contact with the soldier Masons and those they leave behind.

The grave responsibility and the great opportunity fall to the lodges themselves. As they perform, or neglect to perform, their obligations to the brethren who offer their lives for the security of civilization, so will Masonry be esteemed or scorned. The real and intimate work of the institution, the personal touch, that most important and satisfying manifestation of Masonic love, can come only from the lodges. To them is offered the opportunity for work and service which must gladden the heart of every man who is indeed a Mason. Each Lodge must and should be glad to care for its own members in that personal relationship which neither Grand Lodge nor any other organization can reach.

The Masonic Relief Association of the United States and Canada, with which are affiliated forty-six Grand Jurisdictions and eleven thousand lodges, with no intention or desire to weaken the initiative of individual lodges or to minimize their work, but believing that all lodges should work somewhat in harmony and that certain fundamentals are necessary, both to the due performance of Masonic obligations and to the preservation of the fair name of the institution, would recommend to the lodges affiliated with it the following procedure as a basis upon which to build a structure of Masonic usefulness and true Masonic worth.

First. Each lodge should enthusiastically and energetically support the plans presented by its own Grand Lodge or Grand Master for the performance of the broader features of Masonic war work.

Second. Each Lodge should keep a complete record of every member enlisted in war service, with a history of such service and of all the immediate family and dependents of the brother. And should it happen that the brother fall on the field of battle, to rise no more in body, it is recommended that his record be entered permanently in the minutes of his lodge, with the honourable mention that he died that civilization and democracy might live. The form following is suggested:

  1. Name, age, residence and occupation of the brother.
  2. All other lodge and church affiliations.
  3. Names and residence of father, mother, brothers and sisters.
  4. Immediate family and dependents, if any, and their residences.
  5. Military rank and record of the brother, showing successive promotions, if any.
  6. Location from time to time in war service.
  7. Matters left by him in charge of the Lodge.
  8. General remarks.

Third. As many brethren have no male relatives to whom they may leave the care of business affairs, such, for instance, as the payment of taxes, insurance, rent, interest, etc., or to whom the wife or mother can turn for advice and counsel, each Lodge should appoint a committee to look after such things as may be requested by the brother, that his mind may be at ease in the knowledge that his going will not leave his business affairs neglected and his loved ones helpless or friendless.

Fourth. The officers in the army and navy all agree that the most valuable thing that the people back home can do for the man in service is to frequently write him bright, chatty gossipy letters, not filled with regret or sentimentality, but the unconstrained letter of friend to friend or chum to chum. Every Lodge should appoint members to carry on such a correspondence with their brethren, that they may not feel themselves forgotten. Once in a while, let the Lodge write that a bouquet of bowers had been sent to the wife or a plaything given to the baby as the expression of a real love of brother for brother And once in a while, a box of tokens, books, magazines, tobacco home-made edibles, or other little things will cause the soldier in the silent watches of the night on guard, to thank the stars twinkling above his head, and their Maker, that his Masonry has brought him brothers.

Fifth. The greatest curse of camp life is the dissipation which presents itself with fatal fascination in hours of leisure. Disease, horrible disease, takes a fearful toll. Wholesome amusement for the time off duty is imperative if the soldier is to come back clean in body and decent in mind. Every Lodge and member should generously contribute money for such entertainment. And if there is no Masonic organization having such matters in charge near the camp where the brother is located money should be offered to the Lodge or other Masonic agency nearest the camp for the purpose of entertainment. A Lodge located adjacent to a cantonment or camp should provide the opportunity for such entertainment. But a Lodge which seek; to provide such entertainment can not and ought not to be expected to bear the burden of the expense. The Lodges whose members are so entertained are entitled to and ought to pay the cost.

Sixth. Take care of the dependents. See that those whom the brother leaves behind are not in want. Comfort those who mourn. Plant smiles where tears had been. Be a Masonic Lodge.

Seventh. As the future will bring its greater responsibilities in the care of brethren wounded and shattered, and those dependent upon them, it is urged that each Lodge establish a special fund for that purpose in which the generous brethren may deposit their voluntary contributions from time to time, that the burdens of the future may be met by the preparation of the present.

Eighth. As each Lodge will also have its special problems, let all the brethren energetically seek their solution. Upon the manner in which each Lodge performs its duties will depend the standing of Masonry in that community. Let each Lodge resolve, and with determination bring to pass, that, when the war is over, Masonry in its jurisdiction will stand more respected than ever, and the world at large convinced, beyond all question, of its good effects.

CHARLES BLASDEL, President,
WILLIS D. ENGLE, Secretary,
Masonic Relief Association of the United States and Canada.

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ENDORSES CALIFORNIA'S REFUSAL TO ISSUE DISPENSATION FOR MILITARY LODGE

I have just received and read through the October BUILDER. It seems to me that the question of traveling, or Military Lodges should be settled now, and by uniform refusal. In our Great War of the 60's, Drummond (and who better could we follow) refused dispensations because to grant them would be invasion of the jurisdiction of Virginia and other States. M. W. Brother Keesling might have pointed a moral just here, in the fact that though Virginia's Grand Master, Col. Wm. H. Harmon, was killed in battle, though churches both Sides of Mason and Dixon's line, called down the wrath of God on their foes and split into separate organizations of North and South, Masonry never ceased to be a solid brotherhood elevating its votaries far above the passions of war. Save the facts that Union soldiers visited our Lodges in perfect amity, that Major Wm. McKinley and 362 others in blue were made Masons in our Winchester Hiram Lodge No. 21, that a Com. Major (and Mason) saved our old hall, the oldest on the continent, and that Masons among the conquerors here in Richmond thronged Richmond Lodge No. 10 in that old hall to relieve Richmond's suffering people, while our army was still fighting theirs to Appomattox, save, I say, these items. I will not burden this letter with the many proofs of the Divinity of Masonry which are the reasons why I am and have been a Mason for a lifetime.

Traveling Military Lodges might have taken over Lodge rooms and outfit, but they did not. So we should all be very careful of each other's rights. Soldier Masons at Camp Lee are joyously welcomed in the Petersburg, Hopewell and Richmond Lodges. We are conferring without a dollar of cost, all degrees we are requested to confer, and Military Lodges are not needed. When they get to France, our soldier Masons will be given all the courtesies possible by English, Canadian and Australian Masons and I believe by those of France, although we of Virginia recognize only the Independent National Grand Lodge.

So let's not create confusion and perhaps discord by invasions of the rights of any, even of the unrecognized Grand Orient. Grand Master Iieesling is right.
Jos. W. Ezzleston. P.G.M.

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"DIVESTED OF ALL METALLIC SUBSTANCES"

The alchemists of the Middle Ages employed alchemical terms to express their grand philosophy. Some Masonic authorities claim that much of our ritual is derived from the ritual of the alchemists of the Middle Ages. A knowledge of the meaning of the terms they employed is necessary to understand their philosophy.

Thus one of their favorite expressions was "base metals."

"Base metals" stood for base passions, and to be divested of metallic substances is to rid ourselves of base passions.

As our work is to transform the individual from a lower state to a higher state, and as our goal is ultimate perfection, the first thing then an individual must do, in order for him to rise above the animal plane, is to divest himself of his metallic substances, or his base passions. For the ideal of every individual is to reach a higher estate of being, a purer life, and how are we going to perfect ourselves, to rise from our animal state, if not by self examination and by ridding ourselves of our base passions?

What are these base passions? They are prejudice, anger, wrath, jealousy, envy, greed, fear, hate and lust. These are the arch enemies of every individual. They are the enemies, the devils or evils that keep us down to our animal nature, that bind us hand and foot to our low state, a slave to our baser feelings.

That is why we demand, at the outset, that the candidate, before he seriously takes up the work of the degrees, that is, the degrees of his growth and self development, free himself from his baser passions, the shackles, the things that bind him to the animal. How is he going to advance to the next degree, or to a higher plane of being, unless he removes the fetters that bind him down to these demon passions?

O, Brother, examine yourself, and see if you are free from these base passions, see of you are in truth divested of all metallic substances? You are not a free man, a real man, if you let your base passions tie you down to the animal being. Are you free from prejudice, are you free from anger, from greed, from hate and the rest of the brood?

Honest self-examination yields results. It will enable you to become acquainted with yourself, it will enable you to find out some things you never knew about yourself. "Man know thyself" was written over the portals of ancient temples. Very few men know themselves, their real selves.

O, brother, look within thyself, thine own temple, and discover the rubbish within. If you are honest with yourself, if you desire to give yourself a fair chance, you will begin to divest yourself of your base metals. One by one you will cast out the base passions, and uncover the goodness within yourself that lies deeply buried. Do not think this can be accomplished in a short time. It will require a great deal of effort and struggle. But be patient. "Patience and perseverence" are necessary. As you proceed and root out the passions, one by one, you will gain strength and power, and a feeling of peace will come over you that will repay you for your pains.
Bro. A. W. Witt, in the Kansas City Freemason.


The mind of the scholar, if he would have it large and liberal, should come in contact with other minds.
- Longfellow.


Happiness is the motive of every action of every man, even of him who hangs himself.
- Pascal.

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