The Builder Magazine

June 1917 – Volume III – Number 6


Part 2

Continued from Part 1

xx. Next Month: July 1917
Previous Month: May 1917www General Index


By Bro. John Lewin McLeish, Ohio

Sunday, June 24, 1917, St. John Baptist's Day, is the two hundredth anniversary of Speculative or Modern Masonry. Then was established the Mother of all Grand Lodges inchoating an invisible empire which today girdles the globe. It was the consummation of an evolution in the greatest of the world's brotherhoods which had had genesis long before. The Speculative or Scholar Masons then relegated to the background the old Operative or Practical Masons, who for generations had transmitted among themselves by word of mouth, under pledge of secrecy, the quaint, complex and curious philosophy and secret doctrine of Freemasonry inherited from the Cathedral Builders of medieval days, who themselves had it from the Comacines, the lineal descendants of the old Collegia Romana, and so on back into the dim dead past of Hittite predominance, if we may believe the claims of Masonic Archaeologists and Historians – Gould, Hughan, Ravenscroft, Findel, Rylands, Belzoni and others.

Since England gave birth to the Mother of all Grand Lodges, it is there we must turn for the history of a transition which in the passing of the centuries has made Masonry a World Force.

In England, during the last years of the seventeenth century, there was upon the part of the Clergy both Protestant and Roman Catholic, a marked tendency to play politics. Rather reluctantly the dominant hierarchy, which was the Anglican (Episcopalian), had acquiesced in the accession of James II to the throne. Their hesitancy seemed justified, when in 1687 James issued a Religious Edict affording ample opportunities for Catholic activities throughout his kingdom. In consequence, the Anglicans declared against the House of Stuart successfully.

Protestant William of Orange, the successor of James, contributed another shock to the Anglicans. Instead of rewarding them by making their denomination the official Religion of State, he proclaimed universal religious tolerance. Under his new edict, it became possible for a new element to enter – the Dutch Presbyterians, – so forming a hypotenuse for a Clerical Triangle of Dissension – Anglicans, Roman Catholics and Dutch Presbyterians. Each wished the National Supremacy in England. All contributed to a verbal warfare and indulged in intrigues of a most unchurchly character.

Now while these Churchmen quarreled among themselves, the plain people who made up the backbone of the Nation were thinking. Quite disgusted with the unreasonable assumptions of Clergy of all Creeds, reluctantly concluding that their ghostly advisers were all dogma-bound, narrow, selfish and top-heavy with pride, these plain people needed only King William's Edict of 1695 permitting freedom of the press, to loose their tongues and give the Intellectuals free play.

A seed had been sown. The English people began to find themselves. National life assumed a more moral tone. Superficiality and shams gave way to an actual practice of moral and social virtues. The plain people exerted themselves to relegate into fitting oblivion the memory of the licentiousness which had characterized national life under Charles II and James II, the predecessors of their new monarch. An Age of Frivolity was supplanted by an Age of Self-Respect.

The Spirit of the Times found ready expression through the journalists and pamphleteers and those convivial conversationalists who met men of all classes in the London Taverns, "the busy man's recreation, the idle man's business, the melancholy man's sanctuary, and the stranger's welcome; the broachers of more news than hogsheads, more jests than news."

Masonic thought of the day found its outlet through Richard Steele's "Tatler," Jonathan Swift's Satires, and Dr. Desaguilier's Natural Philosophy. Perhaps Joseph Addison crystallized conditions then existent in his famous sentence: "We have just enough religion to make us hate, but not enough to make us love one another."

It was as though to answer that very need that the "Gentle Philosophie of Masonry," whose animating spirit is brotherly love, took on a sudden impetus and was reincarnated as a Living Force in National Life through the Great Revival of 1717. In the Masonic Lodges of 1700 were to be found men of all Creeds and all Religious Sects. Says Findel, a German Masonic historian,

"Originating from the Fraternity of Operative Masons, the Craft has borrowed its emblems and symbols from the Building Corporations to impart to its members moral truths and the rules of the Royal Art… Freemasonry as it is understood at the present day, dawned into existence. Retaining the spirit of the Ancient Brotherhood, their fundamental laws and their traditional customs, yet all were united in relegating Architecture and Operative Masonry to the station to which they belonged, the customary technical expressions which are excellently well suited to the Symbolic Architecture of the Temple, were retained but figuratively withal, bearing a higher significance."

The Report of the Proceedings of the First Grand Lodge of England does not occupy much space. An official account written by Dr. James Anderson says:

"1717 – King George I. entered London most magnificently on Sept. 20, 1714, and after the rebellion was over, A. D. 1716, the few Lodges at London, finding themselves neglected by Sir Christopher Wren, thought fit to cement under a Grand Master as the Center of Union and Harmony, viz. the Lodges that met,

  1. At the Goose and Gridiron Ale-House, in St. Paul's Churchyard.
  2. At the Crown Ale-House in Parker's Lane, near Drury Lane.
  3. At the Apple Tree Tavern in Charles St., Covent Garden.
  4. At the Rummer and Grapes Tavern in Channel Row, Westminster.

"They and some old Brothers met at the said Apple-Tree and having put into the Chair the Oldest Master (now the Master of a Lodge) they constituted themselves a Grand Lodge pro tempore.

"On St. John Baptist's Day, in the third year of King George, A. D. 1717, the Assembly and Feast of the Free and Accepted Masons was held at the foresaid Goose and Gridiron Ale-House.

"Before dinner, the Oldest Master Mason (now the Master of a Lodge), in the Chair, proposed a list of proper candidates: and the Brethren by a Majority of Hands elected,

Mr. Anthony Sayre, Gentleman, Grand Master of Masons,

Mr. Jacob Lamball, Carpenter,

Capt. Joseph Elliot, Grand Wardens, who being invested with the Badges of Office, and Power, by the said Oldest Master, and installed, was duly congratulated by the Assembly, who pay'd him the Homage."

While rather meagre in detail, this account is sufficient to give us a mental concept of an event of unusual importance to Masons, inasmuch as it paved the way for changes destined intimately to affect the nature of the most influential of the World's Secret Societies for years to come.

We can conjure up an imaginative picture of the scene, dominated by such forceful personalities as Edward Strong, Anthony Sayer, George Payne, John, Duke of Montagu, Dr. Desaguiliers, Thomas Morrice and other prominent men of that period, some destined to become Grand Masters. We can conceive in imagination the solemn procession of those four old Lodges through the streets of London, the rich and elegant attire of the Speculative Masons showing no more resplendently than the plainer, simpler garb of the old Operatives, because of the long, white Aprons then affected by the Craft. Nor must we forget the Feast, some idea of which we may gather from a Masonic Menu recorded by the historian Conder. Doubtless there were

"9 dishes of fowls, three in a dish. "2 roasted and 1 boyled with oyster sauce. "3 Yorkshire Hams. "6 Geese, two in a dish. "3 Turkeys. "3 Chines. "3 Dishes of Tongues and Udders. "6 Dishes of Tarts. "Wine: – 12 Gallons of Red Port. 4 Gallons of White Port."

And need we add the self-satisfied testimony of one who attended one of these early Grand Lodge Banquets ?

"We had a good dinner, and to their eternal honour, the brotherhood laid about them very valiantly."

It is known that a caucus had previously prepared the several transactions requisite to afford the Speculative element complete control of this and succeeding Grand Lodges. It was realized by the deeper thinkers like Payne, Desaguiliers and Anderson, that many changes must be wrought to modernize the machinery of a very potent force in national life. Through them it was arranged for a complete overhauling of the Old Constitutions which had governed the Operative Lodges of Freemasons for centuries. This was accordingly done at the next session.

Dr. Anderson was ordered "to digest the Old Charges in a new and better manner," a task in which he received valuable assistance from both Payne and Desaguiliers. At the same time, many "scrupulous Old Brothers" burned their ancient mss., and copies of the Gothic Constitutions of old Operative Masonry, through excess of zeal. Their idea was that the Secrets of Freemasonry might not fall into the hands of the Profane, as all were and still are styled who are not Masons.

When Dr. Anderson reported back to Grand Lodge the fruits of his labors, fourteen brethren audited and approved them. His handiwork known as the Constitution of 1723, in so far as it materially widened the horizon of Freemasonry, can be considered as the most important result of the Great Revival of 1717. It was the dividing line between Ancient and Modern Masonry – the Operative and the Speculative. Its most striking feature was to forevermore make Masonry and Religious Tolerance synonymous. In consequence, since 1717 Masonry has had no quarrel with any religion of the world. In the old Operative Charges there was a specific mandate to every Mason "in every country to be of the Religion of that country wherever it was." In this New Constitution, all Masons were admonished "to keep the Religion in which all men agree, leaving their particular opinions to themselves."

It is more than probable that the Speculative membership upon securing control of the Order, wished to disarm once and forever all opposition from any Church or Hierarchy. They aimed to promote that Harmony, which is the strength and support of all institutions, especially Masonry.

From recent bitter experience in England, they had witnessed the destructive influence upon a Nation of a Quarrel of Creeds. They had seen Anglican, Roman Catholic, and Presbyterian at swords' points, to the great peril of Civil Government, the toppling of a Dynasty and the unstable seat of its successor. They hoped that by playing up to no particular Creed, that they might perpetually disarm the antagonism of all. Another incentive impelling the founders of Modern Masonry to substitute Monotheism for Christianity as a requirement for admission behind the exclusive doors of the Order, was to make eligible as brothers men of all nations, a Universal Belief in the Supreme Being, the sine qua non of Modern Masonry, per se eliminating Atheists and Irreligious.

Unfortunately, if the Old Landmarks or essence of Masonry were to be retained, it was not then, and is not now possible to make sufficient eliminations, to make our Institution persona grata to one of the most powerful of the World Religions. That great cardinal landmark of Masonry – SECRECY – sets up an insurmountable barrier to a cardinal landmark of the Catholic Church – the CONFESSIONAL. No true Mason can kneel at the Altar of Masonry, and take the most solemn and binding obligations evolved by man, and even pretend to answer the possible questions of the priest at the Confessional.

Bro. Count Goblet D'Alviella adds three other reasons why Masonry is unavoidably condemned by the Catholic Church, viz: "(1) in its origin: the discarding of the obedience to the Church; (2) in its purpose: the promotion of benevolence and morality independent of religious differences; (3) in its pantheism and naturalism." This probably best explains the early formal excommunications of Masonry by the Bulls of Clement XVI in 1738, and Benoit XIV in 1751.

Of course, all well-informed Catholics know and admit that Masonry in the United States, Great Britain and Germany at least, is made up of tolerant, representative, law-abiding citizens, "picked men," quarreling with no religion, nor discussing Catholicism in their lodges, much less seeking its overthrow. As is but natural, Masons are staunch supporters of one particular institution essential to that patriotism which is part of their philosophy – the Public School. Aside from this little hobby, all their energies are given to foster a spirit of brotherhood among men, peace among the nations, and, greatest of all, Sweet Charity. The doors of Masonry are as open to a worthy Catholic, as to a good Mohammedan, nor is it the fault of Masonry that the priest says "Nay !"

Our Latin brethren of various countries, like France, Italy, South America and Mexico, are often held up to us as fomentors of revolution, and active participants in politics. There is a reason. Let D'Alviella explain it. "It must not be forgotten that wherever the Roman Church predominates, Freemasonry has to fight for its very life, and Masons as such, have to protect themselves against persecutions which threaten their private no less than their public life. This ought to be kept in sight, when one sits in judgement upon the anti-clerical dealings of Masons in Roman Catholic countries."

Reverting to the New Constitution of 1723. The Old Brothers did not take at all kindly to the elimination of Christianity as a requirement for admission into Masonry. Nor did they like to see their time honoured old Gothic Constitutions set aside for Dr. Anderson's more modern creation. As Rylands says: "To them it would be a severance from one, perhaps the most treasured of their ancient usages, in the use of the Roll of the Old Charges at the making of a Mason."

There was ground for their dissatisfaction, for as Hughan says: "The Charges are our title deeds and prove the continuity of the Society through a very long period." However, the Speculatives had their way: the Grand Lodge grew rapidly in authority and numbers. The quality of the Masons of those early days was of the highest.

Just one attempt was made to manipulate the potential influence of the Masonic Order for political purposes in England. The adherents of the House of Stuart had never abandoned ah hope of ultimate restoration. They scorned no means to undermine established government in the country where they had once been dominant. Their agents were at every Court of Europe. Liberal support was accorded them by Catholic France and the Papal See, for upon the Stuart success depended the future of English Catholicism as the religion of the nation.

A most remarkable personality of this early eighteenth century period was Philip, the young Duke of Wharton. Possessing a superior education, a fascinating and debonair manner, and unusual originality coupled with recklessness, with utter contempt for public opinion and conventionality, this wealthy young rake and profligate made friends wherever he went. He was guilty of many a mad prank which would have been severely frowned upon if perpetrated by one of lesser degree and influence. Having set Dublin agog with his rakish performances, the Duke came to London, at once taking Society by storm. Indeed for a time he was the most talked of Lordling of His Majesty's domain. Being an astute politician, he regarded with interest the growing power and popularity of Freemasonry. At heart a sympathizer with the Pretender, he was doubtless planning the future treachery which wrecked an otherwise promising career.

An English authority, Rylands, advances what seems the most probable explanation of the Duke's erratic conduct. "It appears to me likely that Wharton imagined at a slightly later time, that it would be possible to gain over the strong body of Freemasons, for the Stuart cause, by his extraordinary power of fascinating all he knew. For this purpose he became a Freemason and was ultimately elected Grand Master in 1722."

It was on a St. John's Day when this youngest of Grand Masters presided as toastmaster at a banquet, that he determined to sound the brethren out by ordering the musicians to play that Stuart slogan, "Let the King enjoy his own again!" only to hear the orchestra abruptly silenced by the vociferous shouts of disapproving Masons who were horrified at so flagrant an attempt to inject politics into one of their Assemblies.

Another Masonic Faux Pas of the madcap Master was the spirited defense he made of a Stuart adherent, Atterbury, Bishop of Rochester, on trial for high treason. Wharton spoke long and brilliantly in the House of Lords. At the next meeting of the Grand Lodge he was roundly denounced. Philip, Duke of Wharton, never again appeared before the august assembly of his Masonic brethren.

Filled with bitter resentment, the young Duke surreptitiously inaugurated a new Jacobite movement intended to weaken and if possible destroy Freemasonry by the greatest of all weapons, ridicule. His fertile brain it was which conceived and founded, the "Ancient Order of Gormogans" claiming Chinese antecedents and a pedigree far antedating the Building of King Solomon's Temple. Nor did he blush to borrow boldly many of the Masonic Symbols and Emblems. Dominated by his peculiar personality this society started in jest, waxed strong and was the forerunner of an even more determined attempt by the Jacobites and Jesuits, in the nature of another widely exploited society which flourished in 1741-2 – the "Scald Miserable Masons." Considerable money was expended by both societies for magnificent pageants the tour de force of which was burlesqueing the solemn processionals of the Freemasons. This led to a custom which has never been abandoned. Masons except under dispensation of the Grand Master, parade publicly only at funerals. The Gormogans perished simultaneously with their creator, Wharton, in 1731. Two great artists, Benoit and Hogarth, have immortalized these anti-masonic organizations in their engravings.

The subsequent career of Philip, Duke of Wharton, was what one might anticipate from so eccentric an individual. He vanished from London. Trace of him was lost until Lord Mahon wrote from the continent: "Lord North and the Duke of Wharton had lately gone abroad and openly attached themselves to the Pretender's Party, and now each separately renounced the Protestant and embraced the Roman Catholic Faith."

The good-natured Stuart exile put up with Wharton's wildness until patience ceased longer to be a virtue, when he sent him "upon a mission to Spain." This was a polite and convenient way of exiling him.

In his new environment, the Duke found a second wife. For a time peace and quietude was his. Eventually his wanderlust again asserted itself. He asked for and received from the Pretender a liberal allowance, alleging that his open espousal of the Stuart Cause had cost him wealth and standing in England. As this was true, he received a liberal douceur of many thousand pounds. Upon this he lived like a wastrel Prince in Belgium until so reduced that he had to practice an unworthy subterfuge upon a Portuguese friend to secure decent raiment. Broken in spirit and means, the Duke hastened back to Spain to accept a commission in the Spanish line. At the siege of Gibralter he sought to throw away his life by exposing himself recklessly before the English defences. Doubtless the gallant gentlemen behind those ramparts recognized a former Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England; doubtless they remembered their most solemn oath; not a shot was fired.

In 1731 Philip, Duke of Wharton, died of hasty consumption, alone, abandoned by friends and foes alike. Of him the poet, Pope has written:

"Wharton, the scorn and wonder of our days,
Whose ruling Passion was the Lust of Praise:
Born with whate'er could win it from the Wise,
Women and fools must like him or he dies.

A rebel to the very King he loves,
He dies, sad outcast of each Church and State,
And harder still, flagitious yet not great:
'Twas all for fear the knaves should call him fool."

Gould attributes to Walpole this epitaph: "It is difficult to give an account of the works of so mercurial a man, whose library was a tavern, and women of pleasure his muses."

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It is to the Great Revival of 1717 that Modern Masonry owes its unprecedented growth to almost unbelievable proportions. Today behold the Invisible Empire. In the United States are nearly two million Masons under forty-nine sovereign Grand Lodges. The Grand Lodge of England controls 2578 subordinate lodges. In Canada eight Grand Lodges control 100,000 Masons. In Germany are eight sovereign Grand Lodges; in South America are six; in Australia six; in India five; in the West Indies three; in Mexico five; in Liberia, Egypt, Central America, Hungary, Serbia and Italy, one each. The Craft is potentially influential in Switzerland, Holland, Spain, Portugal and Belgium. Out of the little movement of 1717 sprang the Grand Lodge system which developed a universal force of vast possibilities, once the sleeping giant awakens, once the Masonic Fellowship of the Sons of Men is more firmly welded as an aftermath of the World War.

"More ancient than any of the world's living religions," Masonry today retains jealously many of its ancient landmarks which have been handed down by word of mouth from time immemorial. As one of our Masonic Philosophers has written, and as Masters still instruct those who knock at the portals of the Lodge:

"Our ancient landmarks you are carefully to preserve, and never to suffer any infringement of them or on any pretence to countenance deviations from the established usage and customs of the Order… If our secrets and peculiar forms constituted the essence of the Art, it might with some degree of propriety be alleged that our amusements were trifling and our ceremonies absurd. But this, the skillful, well-informed Mason knows to be false."

Today Masonry is awaiting the ultimate call of Humanity, eager to minister to the widows and orphans of those overseas brethren who so bravely responded to the call of country; Masonry has already wrought wonders in an eleemosynary way. Much Masonry can and will achieve.

The brethren of the Invisible Empire are awakening to a fuller realization that in a measure they are indeed responsible for their fellow man's well-or-ill being.

Legions of true men, square men, men worthy and well qualified, men duly and truly prepared, men humanitarian in their ideals, moral in their code of life, tolerant of All Religions, are carrying into actual daily performance that Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth which makes Masonry a Very Vital Force, cemented by unfailing belief in that religion in which all men do agree – The Fatherhood of God, the Brotherhood of Man.

When the inevitable moment comes, and may it come soon, that the Warring Nations cast aside their weapons, broken, spiritless, crushed, yet not wholly despairing, the millions of the Invisible Empire of Freemasonry will be found labouring side by side with Other Great World Forces, to again promote Peace on Earth, Good Will Towards Men, to help build up instead of to destroy, since Masonry is a Constructive and not a Destructive Potentiality.

So Mote It Be.

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By Bro. John W. Barry, P. S. G. W., Iowa

One of the characteristics of worthy Masons everywhere is their fidelity to the "old landmarks," by which is meant those things that are at the foundation of Masonry, and, therefore, inherent in every lodge. The height of the pillars Jachin and Boaz, being given in the Bible in four separate books, is an architectural fact in sacred history, and, therefore, could in no proper, or even remote, sense be classed with the revered landmarks. Yet out of respect for any one that might at first think otherwise, but more particularly to learn the height given in other jurisdictions, the question was submitted to the Grand Secretary of each Grand Lodge of the United States and Canada. The Secretaries replied as follows:

Jurisdiction Reply
Alabama 18 cubits
Arizona No reply
Arkansas 18 cubits
California 35 "
Connecticut 18, or 35 for the united length
Colorado 35 cubits
Delaware 18 "
Dist. of Columbia 18 "
Florida 35 "
Georgia 35 "
Idaho 35 "
Indiana "Not regulated by edict."
Indian Territory 18 cubits
Iowa 35 "
Kansas 35 "
Kentucky 18 "
Louisiana No reply
Maine 35 cubits
Manitoba 18 "
Maryland "Matter we do not present."
Massachusetts 35 cubits
Michigan 35 "
Minnesota 35 "
Mississippi 18 "
Missouri 35 "
Montana 35 "
Nebraska 35 cubits
Nevada No reply
New Hampshire 35 cubits
New- Jersey 18 "
New Mexico 35 "
New York 35 "
North Carolina 35 "
North Dakota No reply
Ohio 18 cubits
Oklahoma 35 "
Oregon 35
Pennsylvania "Height of Jachin and Boaz not given."
Rhode Island 35 cubits
South Carolina 18 "
South Dakota 35 "
Tennessee 18 "
Texas 35 "
Utah 30 "
Vermont 35 "
Virginia "It is not proper to print or write any esoteric work."
Washington 18 cubits
West Virginia Height not mentioned in West Virginia work.
Wisconsin 35 cubits
Wyoming 35 "

Summarizing the foregoing, of the forty-four jurisdictions replying, in three the height of Jachin and Boaz is not given; in fourteen, the height is eighteen cubits, and in twenty-seven it is thirty-five cubits, while in one the height is given as thirty cubits. Here is a very wide variation, and among Masons, too, who, above all others, are supposed to have correct information regarding Solomon's Temple. Now, the simple question: What was the correct height of Jachin and Boaz? is the task assigned your committee, and were it not for the fact that the resolution requires the compiling of the best evidence in support of the answer, this paper would have been very short, because eighteen cubits is the only height for which there is any warrant of any kind in either sacred or profane records.

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Solomon's Temple Was Like Contemporaneous Buildings

That Solomon's Temple corresponded with the architecture of his time is a self-evident proposition, but just what that architecture was is not so easily determined. The evidence of what it was will be covered by what may be classed as direct and circumstantial The circumstantial evidence consists of:

First. The influence of other countries and architecture on Solomon's Temple.

Second. The influence of Solomon's Temple on succeeding buildings.

Third. Opinions of Masonic investigators, Bible students, and architects.

While the direct evidence consists of Josephus and the Bible.

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First as to Influence of Other Countries

Palestine, Phoenicia, Egypt, and Greece are all on the eastern end of the Mediterranean sea, and a cruise of their various ports might be likened to a cruise on Lake Michigan. The people of those countries had intimate commercial relations in time of peace, and in time of war invasions and counter invasions were the rule. So that each country was familiar. with the architecture of the other countries. Indeed, one cannot read the history of Solomon's time without being convinced that together Solomon, King of Israel, and Hiram, King of Tyre, stood in much the same relation to the then known world as do the United States and England to the world of our day. In every port of every sea were the ships of Solomon and Hiram. Together they organized a fleet at the head of the Red sea to sail to the land of Ophir for gold, ivory, and precious stones. Together their crews traversed the Nile valley, where in the days of Joseph the Jews had attained eminence and power. The Jews and Phoenicians were the merchants, sailors, and artizans of the world in the time of Hiram, and it was they who built Solomon's Temple. What then are some of the evidences of –

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Egyptian Influence?

In every Egyptian temple was a sacred room, or holy of holies, in which was deposited a miniature tabernacle containing the image of the deity in whose honor the temple was erected. In the smaller temples this article was made of wood, and but few of them have been preserved. There is one of very great age in the Museum at Turin, Italy, shown in cut No. 1. In the larger temples, the material used was granite. In the temple at Edfou a little granite tabernacle of this kind is still in place, but generally those little tabernacles have been carried away, and may now be seen in the various museums of Europe. A most perfect one is in the museum of the Louvre, and bears the name Amasis, who founded the eighteenth dynasty, 1700 B. C. See cut No.2. They are described by Herodotus, Volume II., page 175, who travelled in and wrote of Egypt 450 B.C. Now, compare the central idea of Solomon's Temple with this of the Egyptian. The holy of holies in Solomon's Temple was the sacred chamber to contain the Ark of the Covenant, just as the sacred chambers in Egyptian temples were devoted to a very similar purpose.

Again, Egyptian temples were surrounded by walled-in courts, providing open air meeting places for the people, the priests alone being admitted to the temple itself. To this general rule Solomon's Temple corresponded in every particular, including the small rooms for the priests. Inasmuch as Solomon's Temple corresponded in purpose and in form with the Egyptian, is it not reasonable to conclude that it corresponded in elevation also ? There is much direct and indirect evidence that it did. The excavations made by the Palestine Exploration Fund have demonstrated intimate relations between Palestine and Egypt, and there are numerous records to show that the builders of Solomon's Temple were familiar with the temples on the Nile. Indeed there are existing architectural remains, which though of a later time, yet confirm beyond a doubt the proposition that the Jews and Phoenicians constructed with full knowledge of what had gone before on the banks of the Nile. Let the tombs at Beni Hassan and at Jerusalem illustrate. Figure 3 shows the tombs cut into the rocky cliffs of the Nile as they appear now, dating from 3000 years B. C. There are forty such tombs at Beni Hassan alone, entered by a porch-like structure. The pillars are not set in, but cut out of the rock, or rather the rock is all cut away, leaving only so much of it as is now seen in the pillars.

Cut No. 4 is a near view of Ameni's tomb, made about 2500 years B.C. The modern iron grating shows that it is now carefully cared for, for the reason that it contains a record of the famine in the time of Joseph, 1700 B. C.

When the Egyptian died he began to live, and so long as his mummified body, or a stone image, or painted likeness thereof existed he continued to live. He took an active part in the hunting, fishing, racing, sowing, harvesting, and other scenes depicted on the walls of his tomb. The familiar salutation: "O, King, live forever," here finds its true meaning, for should the body or its image be destroyed, then, and then only, did life end. From Beni Hassan down, every rock-cut tomb and every temple is a memorial to the belief of man that he shall live beyond the grave, or rather that he shall never, no never die.

These pillars, cut from the living rock, are almost true Doric, with sixteen flutes or sides. They are sixteen feet eight inches in height. The distance between the pillars is about seven feet, and the diameter of the pillars is three feet eight inches, making the porch nearly the exact length of Solomon's. Cut No. 5 is an interior view of the audience room, which is forty feet square and about eighteen feet high. Every inch of its walls and ceiling is covered by Egyptian writing or painting.

Go now with me to Jerusalem, which is but a comparatively short distance. A map of the city is shown in cut No. 6. The square portion to the right is the top of Mt. Moriah, now known as the Temple area, and contains about thirty five acres. The Tyropoean valley is on the west, and the Kedron, or Valley of the Jehoshaphat, is on the east, forming a deep gulch between the Mt. of Olives and the Temple area. Cut No. 6a is a view from the Mt. of Olives. The dome-like building is the Dome of Rock on the site of the Temple. On the eastern side of the Kedron, facing the Temple, are ancient rockcut tombs, duplicates of those at Beni Hassan, on the Nile. Their position is shown by plat No. 7, the center group being opposite the Temple altar. Two of them are shown in cut No. 8. The one with the pyramid roof is the Tomb of Zachariah, and corresponds with that of Absalom, about equally distant to the left. In the center is the Tomb of St. James, the duplicate of Ameni, at Beni Hassan on the Nile.

These tombs, together with the tombs of the Kings of Juda, are held by Canina and other archaeologists t o prove to a demonstration that those who cut the tombs about Jerusalem knew of the corresponding tombs at Beni Hassan and that Jewish architecture in general and the architecture of Solomon's Temple in particular are based upon the architecture of Egypt. Certain it is that Beni Hassan was the model for temple porches on the Nile and elsewhere.

Using the short cubit of eighteen inches, Solomon's Temple was thirty feet wide, ninety feet long, and forty-five feet high. If the pillars of the porch were forty cubits, or sixty feet high, then they projected above the roof of the Temple fifteen feet, and the porch was relatively higher than the Temple itself.

Now in none of the remains of temples on the Nile is there the remotest suggestion of a building so constructed. Numerous examples might be given, but, as they are all to the same effect, a few will answer.

Cut No. 9 is a front view of the porch of the Temple of Amenhotep IIl, at Luxor, as it now appears. Previous to 1885 this temple was buried to the depth of forty feet, and upon this debris stood a modern village, the "House of the Mission Defrance" standing above the part here shown. In January, Maspero, with a force of one hundred and fifty men, began to dig, and finally unearthed this, the most beautiful porch of Egypt. The pillars represent a bundle of lotus plants, stalks, and buds; the stalks bound together at the top by a ligature, and the cluster of buds forming the capital. Twelve of them remain standing, six in each row. The pillars support the architrave, and, therefore, are not higher than the temple itself. Though the completed temple was eight hundred feet long and many times the width of that of Solomon's, its pillars did not reach sixty feet, the erroneous height now assigned to Jachin and Boaz.

In cut No. 10 is a view through the porch of the Temple of Kurneh, Thebes, showing the five remaining pillars. Here, as in all, the pillars support the facade, and, therefore, the porch is relatively lower than the temple. Both these temples date from 1500 years B.C.

Cut No.11 is a porch of a Nubian Temple looking from within. This cut was used by Past Grand Master George C. Connor, Grand Custodian of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee, of which he wrote as follows: - "I am fully persuaded in my own mind that the front or eastern side of the porch was open, and that the pillars Jachin and Boaz supported the wall of the facade. The picture gives, in a general way, our idea of the eastern side of Solomon's Temple - its porch." In cut No. 11a is another Egyptian temple erected after Solomon's 320 B.C. It is the Temple of Dekkeh.

It will be noticed that the porches are relatively lower than the main building, in that the pillars support the roof or ceilings. Note this also in cut No. 12, in which the two round pillars represent Jachin and Boaz.

This temple was built by Amenhotep III., 1500 B. C., and its remains endured until 1822 A. D., when it was totally destroyed by the Turkish Governor of Assoun. It was located at Elephantine, in which immediate section temples of this kind were numerous. They were usually small, the one shown being 31 x 40 and 21 feet 6 inches above grade.

(To be continued.)

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We are today ruled and governed by laws made in the past.
It is indeed the dead that govern; the living only obey.

Our lot is but to work. The effort is the virtue. In the perspective of eternity distinctions between the humblest and the most exalted vanish and all is judged according to merit.

Our judgment of our contemporaries is practically worthless, unless we are better judges than the ancient Brethren whom we follow.

Consider the errors of the past.

Toward the close of the 18th century the Grand Lodge of England expelled William Preston. He was the Masonic intellectual giant of his time and to his untiring efforts are very largely due our lectures in their present form. But he was relentlessly crushed by the brethren because he differed with them.

In the early part of the 19th century Krause. whose intense legal mind contributed the basis for our present system of Masonic Jurisprudence, was expelled from his lodge. He had sought the light, the truth itself.

Even as late as the middle of the 19th century, Oliver, that sweet charitable preacher of the south of England, whose prolific writings on Masonic subjects have formed the basis for so much of the symbolic writings of later years, was divested of his office of Provincial Deputy Grand Master. He, too, had sought the real purpose of Masonry and an understanding of its teachings.

In view of the treatment which the fraternity has accorded to its illustrious dead, we must recognize how unjust we always are. Let us therefore leave the issues with God and extend our helping and sympathetic hand to all our brethren and to all their dear ones. To help and to labor remains for us.

The lives of our departed brethren contain many experiences from which we might learn most valuable.
– A. W. Gage, Illinois.

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To live a simple, sincere, serene life; to repel anger, envy and anxiety; to cultivate gentleness, self control and gratitude; to practice kindness, cheerfulness and helpfulness; to fill the days, from dawn till dusk, with the joy of pure thoughts, kind words and noble deeds – what more is asked of us? – J. F. N.

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(A Reprint From The Harris Constitutions, 1798)

(The following article is made up of excerpts from a quaint and lare old book, entitled, "Constitutions of the Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons," compiled by Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris, A. M. dated 1798. It is something more than a glimpse into an Old Curiosity Shop, showing how Masonic history was written in that day, which is interesting as a warning, if nothing else; and at the same time furnishing some facts of real value. Such compilers are useful workers, and if some of the rubbish of the Temple gets into their records, it is for us to remove it, preserving, now and then, a stone of unique design – as did a certain young artist, once on a day, while digging in the quarry.)

An old Manuscript which was destroyed, with many others in 1720, said to have been in the possession of NICHOLAS STONE, a curious Sculptor under INIGO JONES, contains the following particulars:

"St. Alban loved Masons well, and cherished them much, and made their pay right good; for he gave them ii s. per weeke and iii d. to their cheer; whereas, before that time, in all the land, a Mason had but a penny a day, and his meat, until St. Alban mended itt. And he gott them a charter from the king and his counsell for to hold a general counsell, and gave itt to name Assemblie. Thereat he was himselfe and did helpe to make Masons, and gave them good charges."


A RECORD OF THE SOCIETY, written in the reign of Edward IV, formerly in the possession of the famous ELIAS ASHMOLE, founder of the Museum at Oxford, and unfortunately destroyed, with other papers on the-subject of Masonry, at the revolution, gives the following account of the State of Masonry at that period:

"Though the ancient records of the Brotherhood in England were many of them destroyed or lost in wars of the Saxons and Danes, yet King Athelstane (the grandson of King Alfrede the great, a mighty architect) the first anointed king of England, and who translated the Holy Bible into the Saxon tongue (A. D. 930) when he had brought the land into rest and peace, built many great works, and encouraged many Masons from France, who were appointed overseers thereof, and brought with them the charges and regulations of the Lodges, preserved since the Roman times; who also prevailed with the king to improve the constitution of the English Lodges according to the foreign model, and to increase the wages of working Masons.

"The said King's brother, Prince Edwin, being taught Masonry, and taking upon him the charges of a Master Mason, for the love he had to the said craft, and the honourable principles whereon it is grounded, purchased a free charter of King Athelstane, for the Masons having a correction among themselves (as it was anciently expressed) or a freedom and power to regulate themselves, to amend what might happen amiss, and to hold a yearly communication and general assembly:

"Accordingly Prince Edwin summoned all the Masons in the realm to meet him in a congregation at York, who came and composed a general Lodge, of which he was Grand Master; and having brought with them all the writings and records extant, some in Greek, some in Latin, some in French, and other languages, from the contents thereof that assembly did frame the constitution and charges of an English Lodge, made a law to preserve and observe the same in all time coming, and ordained good pay for working Masons, &c." And he made a book thereof how the craft was founded: And he himself ordered and commanded that it should be read and tolde when any Mason should be made, and for to give him his charges. And from that day until this time manners of Masons have been kept in that forme, as well as menne might govern.

"Furthermore, however, at divers assemblies certain charges have been made and ordained by the best advice of Masters and Fellowes, as the exigencies of the craft made necessarie."


"In the glorious reign of King Edward III, when Lodges were more frequent, the Right Worshipful the Master and Fellows, with consent of the Lords of the realm (for most great men were then Masons) ordained,

"That for the future, at the making or admission of a Brother, the constitution and the ancient charges should be read by the Master or Warden.

"That such as were to be admitted Master Masons, or Masters of the work, should be examined whether they be able of cunning to serve their respective Lords, as well the lowest as the highest, to the honor and worship of the aforesaid art, and to the profit of their Lords; for they be their Lords that employ and pay them for-their service and travel."

The following particulars are also contained in a very Old Manuscript, of which a copy was in the possession of the late GEORGE PAYNE, Esq., Grand Master in 1718.

"That when the Master and Wardens meet in a Lodge, if need be, the Sheriff of the county, or the Mayor of the city, or Alderman of the town, in which the congregation is held, should be made fellow and sociate to the Master, in help of him against rebels, and for upbearing the rights of the realm.

"That entered prentices, at their making, were charged not to be thieves, or thieves maintainers; that they should travel honestly for their pay, and love their fellows as themselves, and be true to the King of England, and to the realm, and to the Lodge.

"That at such congregations it shall be inquired, whether any Master or Fellow has broke any of the articles agreed to; and if the offender, being duly cited to appear, prove rebel, and will not attend, then the Lodge shall determine against him, that he shall forswear (or renounce) his Masonry, and shall no more use this Craft, the which if he presume for to do, the Sheriff of the county shall prison him, and take all his goods into the King's hands, until his grace be granted him and issued. For this Cause principally have these congregations been ordained, that as well the lowest as the highest should be well and truly served in this art aforesaid, throughout all the kingdom of England. Amen, so mote it be."


The Latin Register of William Molart, Prior of CANTERBURY, in Manuscript, (pp. 88), entitled, "Liberatio generalis Domini Gulielmi Prioris Ecclesiae Christi Cantuariensis, erga Fastum Natalis Domini 1429," informs us, that, in the year 1429, during the minority of Henry VI, a respectable Lodge was held at Canterbury, under the patronage of Henry Chicheley, the Archbishop: At which were present Thomas Stapylton, the Master; John Morris, the custos de la Lodge lathomorum, or Warden of the Lodge of Masons; with fifteen fellow crafts and three entered apprentices, all of whom are particularly named.

A record of that time says that,

"The company of Masons, being otherwise termed Free Masons, of auntient staunding and gude reckoning, by means of affable and kind meetings dyverse tymes, and as a loving brotherhood use to do, did frequent this mutual assembly in the time of Henry VI, in the 12th year of his reign, A. D. 1434."

See also Stowe's Survey, Ch. V, p. 215.

The same record says farther,

"That the charges and laws of the Free Masons have been seen and perused by our late Soveraign King Henry VI and by the Lords of his most honourable council, who have allowed them, and declared, That they be right good and reasonable to be holden, as they have been drawn out and collected from the records of ancient tymes" &c.


Ancient Charges

Ye shall be true to the King, and the Master ye serve, and to the fellowship whereof ye are admitted. Ye shall be true to and love eidher odher. Ye shall call eider odher Brother or Fellow, not slave, nor any unkind name.

Ye shall ordain the wisest to be Master of the work; and neither for love nor lineage, riches nor favor, set one over the work who hath but little knowledge; whereby the Master would be evil served, and ye ashamed. And also ye shall call the governour of the work Master in the time of working with him; And ye shall truly deserve the reward of the Masters ye serve.

All the Freres shall treat the peculiarities of eidber odher with the gentleness, decencie, and forbearance he thinks due to his own. Ye shall have a reasonable pay, and live honestly.

Once a year ye are to come and assemble together, to consult how ye may best work to serve the Craft, and to your own profit and credit.


A MANUSCRIPT copy of an examination of some of the Brotherhood, taken before King Henry VI, was found by the learned John Locke, Esq. in the Bodleian library. This dialogue possesses a double claim to our regard; first for its antiquity, and next for the ingenious notes and conjectures of Mr. Locke upon it, some of which we have retained. The approbation of a Philosopher of as great merit and penetration as the English nation ever produced, added to the real value of the piece itself, must give it a sanction, and render it deserving a serious and candid examination.

The ancient Manuscript is as follows, viz.

Certayne Questyons, with answeres to the same, concernynge the Mystery of maconrye; wryitenne by the hande of Kynge Henrye the Sixthe of the Name, and faythfullye copyed by me1 Johan Leylande Antiquarius, by the commaunde of his Highnesse.2

They be as Followethe:

Quest. What mote ytt be?

Answ. Ytt beeth the Skylle of nature, the understondynge of the myghte that is hereynne, and its sondrye werckynges; sonderlyche, the Skylle of rectenyngs, of waightes, and metynges, and the treu manere of faconnynge al thynges for mannes use, headlye, dwellynges, and buyldynges of alle kindes, and al odher thynges that make gudde to manne.

Quest. Where dyd ytt begyne ?

Answ. Ytt dyd begynne with the fyrste menne yn the este, whych were before the ffyrste manne of the weste, and comynge westlye, ytt hath broughte herwyth alle comfortes to the wylde and comfortlesse.

Quest. Who dyd brynge ytt westlye ?

Answ. The Venetians3, whoo beynge grate merchaundes, comed ffyrste ffromme the este ynn Venetia, ffor the commodytye of merchaundysynge beithe este and weste, bey the Redde and Myddlelonde Sees.

Quest. Howe comede ytt yn Engelonde ?

Answ. Peter Gower,4 wachsynge, and becommynge a myghtye wyseacre, and gratelyche renowned, and her he framed a grate Lodge at Groton and maked many Maconnes, some whereoffe dyd journey yn Fraunce, and maked manye Maconnes, wherefromme, yn processe of tyme, the arte passed in Engelonde.

Quest. Do the Maconnes discover here arts unto others ?

Answ. Peter Gower whenne he journeyedde to lernne, was ffyrste made, and anonne techedde; evenne soe shulde all odhers be yn recht. Natheless5 Maconnes hauethe alweys yn everyche tyme from tyme to tyme communycatedde to mannkynde soche of her secrettes as generallyche myghte be usefulle; they haueth keped backe soche allein as shulde be harmefulle yff they commed yn euylle haundes, oder soche as ne myghte be holpynge wythouten the techynges to be joynedde herwythe in the Lodge, oder soche as do bynde the Freres more strongelyche togeder, bey the proffytte, and commodytye comynge to the Confrerie herfromme.

Quest. Whatte artes haueth the Maconnes techedde mankynde ?

Answ. The artes Agricultura, Architechura, Astlonomia, Geometria, Numeres, Musica, Poesie, Kymistrye, Governmente, and Relygyonne.

Quest. Howe commethe Maconnes more teachers than odher menne ?

Answ. They hemselfe haueth allein the arte of fyndynge neue artes, whyche art the ffyrste Maconnes receaued from Godde; by the whyche they fyndethe whatte artes hem plesethe, and the treu way of techynge the same. Whatt odher menne doethe ffynde out, ys onelyche bey chaunce, and therfore but Iytel I tro.

Quest. Whatt dothe the Maconnes concele, and hyde ?

Answ. They concelethe the arte of ffyndynge neue artes, and thattys for there owne proffytte, and preise: They concelethe the arte of kepynge secrettes, thatt soe the worlde mayeth nothinge concele from them. They concelethe the arte of wunderwerckynge, and of fore sayinge thynges to comme, thatt so thay same artes may not be usedde of the wyckedde to an euylle ende; they also conceethe the arte of chaunges (Note, The transmutation of metals) the wey of wynnynge the facultye of Abrac (Note, This word "Abracadabra" had a magical signification the explanation of which is now lost) the skylle of becommynge gude and parfyghte wythouten the holpynges of fere, and hope; and the universelle longage of Maconnes.

Quest. Wylle he teche me thay same artes?

Answ. Ye shalle be techedde yff ye be werthye, and able to lerne.

Quest. Dothe alle Maconnes kunne more than odher menne ?

Answ. Not so. Thay onlyche haueth recht, and occasyonne more then odher menne to kunne, butt many doeth fale yn capacity, and manye more doth want industrye, that ys pernecessarye for the gaynynge all kunnynge.

Quest. Are Maconnes gudder menne then odhers ?

Answ. Some Maconnes are nott so vertuous as some odher menne; but yn the moste parte, thay be more gude then thay woulde be yf thay war not Maconnes.

Quest. Doth Maconnes love eidther odher myghtylye as beeth sayde ? Answ. Yea verylyche, and yt may not odherwyse be; for gude menne, and true, kennynge eidher odher to be soche, doeth always love the more as thay be more gude.

Here endethe the Questyonnes and Awnsweres.

A letter from Mr. Locke to the Right Honorable Thomas Earl of Pembroke, to whom he sent this ancient manuscript, concludes as follows, viz. "I know not what effect the sight of this old paper may have upon your Lordship; but for my own part I cannot deny, that it has so much raised my curiosity, as to induce me to enter myself into the Fraternity; which I am determined to do (if I may be admitted) the next time I go to London (and that will be shortly). I am, my Lord, your Lordship's most obedient, and most humble servant. JOHN LOCKE."


Allein only
Alweys always
Beithe both
Commodytye conveniency
Confrerie fraternity
Faconnynge forming
Fore saying prophesying
Freres brethren
Headlye chiefly
Hem plesethe they please
Hemselfe themselves
Her there, their
Hereynne therein
Herwyth with it
Holpynge beneficial
Kunne know
Kunnynge knowledge
Make gudde are beneficial
Metynges measures
Mote may
Myddlelonde Mediterranean
Myghte power
Occasyonne opportunity
Oder or
Onelyche only
Perneccessarye absolutely necessary
Preise honor
Recht right
Reckenyngs numbers
Sonderlyche particularly
Skylle knowledge
Wachsynge growing
Werck operation
Wey way
Whereas where
Woned dwelt
Wunderwerckynge working miracles
Wylde savage
Wynnynge gaining
Ynn into


Ancient Charges at the Constituting of a Lodge; Extracted from a Manuscript in the possession of the Lodge of Antiquity in London, written in the time of James the second.

"And furthermore, at diverse assemblies have been put and ordained diverse crafties by the best advise of magistrates and fellows. Tunc unus ex senioribus tenet, librum, et illi ponent manum suam super librum.

"Every man that is a Mason take good heed to these charges (we Pray) that if any may find himselfe guilty of any of these charges, that he may amend himselfe, or principally for dread of God, you that be charged to take good heed that you keepe all these charges well, for it is a great evill for a man to forswear himselfe upon a book.

"The first charge is, That yee shall be true men to God and the holy church, and to use no error or heresie by your understanding and by wise mens teachings. Allso

"Secondly, That yee shall be true liege men to the king of England, without treason or any falsehood, and that ye know no treason or treachery but yee shall give knowledge thereof to the King or his counseil; also yee shall be true one to another, that is to say, every Mason of the Craft that is Mason allowed, yee shall doe to him as yee would be done unto yourselfe.

"Thirdly, And yee shall keepe truly all the counsell that ought to be kept in the way of Masonhood, and all the counsell of the Lodge or of the chamber. Also, that yee shall be no thiefe nor thieves to your knowledge free. That yee shall be true to the King, Lord or Master that yee serve, and truly to see and worke for his advantage.

"Fourthly, Yee shall call all Masons your fellows, or your brethren, and no other names.

"Fifthly, Yee shall not take your Fellows wife in villany nor deflower his daughter or servant, nor put him to disworship.

"Sixthly, Yee shall truely pay for your meat or drinke wheresoever yee goe, to table or bord. Also, Yee shall doe no villany there, whereby the Craft or Science may be slandered.

"These be the charges general - to every true Mason, both Masters and Fellowes.

"Now will I rehearse other charges single for Masons allowed or accepted.

"First, That no Mason take on him no Lord's worke, nor any other man's, unless he know himself well able to perform the worke, so that the Craft shall have no Slander.

"Secondly, Allso, that that no Master take worke but that he take reasonable pay for itt; so that the Lord may be truly served, and the Master to live honestly and to pay his fellows truely. And that no Master or fellow supplant others of their worke; that is to say, that if he hath taken a worke, or else stand Master of any worke, that he shall not put him out, unless he be unable of cunning to make an end of his worke. And no Master nor Fellow shall take no apprintice for less than seven years. And that the apprintice be free born, and of limbs whole as a man ought to be, and no bastard. And that no Master or Fellow take no allowance to be made Mason without the assent of his fellows, at the least six or seaven.

"Thirdly, That he that be made be able in all degrees; that is, free born, of good kindred, true, and no bondsman, and that he have his right limbs, as a man ought to have.

"Fourthly, That a Master take no apprintice without occupation to occupy two or three Fellows at the least.

"Fifthly, That no Master or Fellow put away any Lord's worke to taske that ought to be journey worke.

"Sixthly, That every Master give pay to his Fellows and servants as they may deserve, soe that he be not defamed with false workeing; And that none slander another behind his back, to make loose his good name.

"Seventhly, That no Fellow in the house or abroad answear another ungodly or reproveably without a cause.

"Eighthly, That every Master Mason doe reverance his elder; and that a Mason be no common plaier at cards, dice or hazzard nor at any other unlawfull plaies, through the which the science and Craft may be dishonoured or slandered.

"Ninthly, That no Felllow goe into town by night, except he hath a Fellow with him, who may beare him record that he was in an honest place.

"Tenthly, That every Master and Fellow shall come to the assemblie, if itt be eithin fifty miles of him, if he have any warning. And if he have trespassed against the Craft, to abide the award of Masters and Fellows.

"Eleventhly, That every Master Mason and Fellow that hath trespassed against the Craft shall stand to the correction of other Masters and Fellows to make him accord, and if they cannot accord, to go to the common law.

"Twelvethly, That a Master or Fellow make not a mould stone, square, nor rule, to no lowen, nor let no lowen worke within their Lodge, nor without to mould stone.

"Thirteenthly, That every Mason receive and cherish strange Fellows when they come over the countrie, and set them on worke if they will worke, as the manner is; that is to say, if the Mason have any mould stone in his place, he shall give him a mould stone, and sett him on worke; and if he have none, the Mason shall refresh him with money unto the next Lodge.

"Fourteenthly, That every Mason shall truely serve his Master for his pay.

"Fifteenthly, That every Master shall truely make an end of his worke, taske or journey whethersoe it be.

"These be all the charges and covenants that ought to be read at the installment of Master, or makeing of a Free Mason or Free Masons. The Almighty God of Jacob who ever have you and me in his keeping, bless us now and ever, Amen."


Extract from the Diary of ELIAS ASHMOLE, a learned Antiquary.

"I was made a Free Mason at Warrington, Lancashire, with Colonel Henry Mainwaring, of Kerthingham, in Cheshire, by Mr. Richard Penket the Warden, and the Fellow Crafts (all of whom are specified) on the 16th October, 1646."

In another place of his diary he says.

"On March the 10th,1682, about 5 hor. post merid. I received a summons to appear at a Lodge to be held the next day at Masons Hall in London. March 11, accordingly I went, and about noon were admitted into the fellowship of Free Masons Sir William Wilson, Knt. Capt. Richard Borthwick, Mr. Wiiliam Woodman, Mr. William Gray, Mr. Samuel Taylour, and Mr. William Wise. I was the senior Fellow among them, it being thirty five years since I was admitted. There were present, beside myself, the Fellows after named: Mr. Thomas Wise, Master of the Masons' Company this present year, Mr. Thomas Shorthose, and seven more old Free Masons. We all dined at the HaLf Moon Tavern, Cheapside, at a noble dinner prepared at the charge of the new accepted Masons."

An old record of the Society describes a coat of arms much the same with that of the London company of Freemen Masons; whence it is generally believed that this company is a branch of that ancient Fraternity; and in former times, no man, it also appears, was made free of that company, until he was initiated in land among the operative Masons.

The writer of Mr. Ashmole's life, who was not a Mason, before his History of Berkshire, p. 6, gives the following account of Masonry.

"He (Mr. Ashmole) was elected a Brother of the company of Free Masons; a favour esteemed so singular by the members that Kings themselves have not disdained to enter themselves of this Society. From these are derived the adopted Masons, accepted Masons, or Free Masons, who are known to one another all over the world by certain ,signals and watch words known to them alone. They have several Lodges in different countries for their reception; and when any of them fall into decay, the Brotherhood is to relieve them. The manner of their adoption or admission is very formal and solemn, and with the administration of an oath of secrecy, which has had better fate than all other oaths, and has ever been most religiously observed; nor has the world been yet able, by the inadvertency, surprise, or folly of any of its members, to dive into this mystery or make the least discovery."

(The above extract of Masonic antiquities is taken from the CONSTITUTIONS of the ANCIENT and HONORABLE FRATERNITY of FREE and ACCEPTED MASONS, published by the GRAND LODGE of MASSACHUSETTS, 25th June, 1798, Compiled by the Rev. Thaddeus Mason Harris, A. M. Grand Chaplain.)

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Father in thy mysterious presence kneeling,
Fain would our souls feel all thy kindling love;
For we are weak, and need some deep revealing
Of trust and strength and calmness from above.

Lord, we have wandered forth through doubt and sorrow,
And thou hast made each step an onward one;
And we will ever trust each unknown morrow –
Thou wilt sustain us till its work is done.

In the heart's depths a peace serene and holy
Abides; and, when pain seems to have its will
Or we despair, oh, may that peace rise slowly,
Stronger than agony, and we be still!

Now, Father, now, in thy dear presence kneeling,
Our spirits yearn to feel thy kindling love;
Now make us strong, we need thy deep revealing
Of trust and strength and calmness from above.
– Samuel Johnson.

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By John Henderson Miller

1. O, the Book, the wonderful Book;
The Book of law and of love;
The Book for all on earth below
To lead to Heaven above.

Chorus. Wonderful Book; With it we're rich;
Wonderful Book ! Without it we're poor;
Wonderful Book ! Without it we're lost;
But with it our salvation's sure.

2. O, the Book, the wonderful Book;
Written with letters of fire,
That burn their way into the heart
With warnings of dangers dire.

Chorus. Wonderful Book, etc.

3. O, the Book, the wonderful Book;
Bright with flames of love divine,
That light the way to peace and God,
And the lives of men refine.

Chorus. Wonderful Book, etc.

4. O, the Book, the wonderful Book;
Than which there is none other;
It cheers the heart and feeds the soul,
And makes each man our brother.

Chorus. Wonderful Book, etc.

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"Every Man Do His Bit"

THE United States is at war! After enduring repeated insult with unequalled patience, after submitting to ruthless aggression, after trying every art of persuasion and appeal in behalf of peace - the United States is at war! She could do no other without betraying the humanity of the nation and the humanity of the world. Reluctantly, sadly, yet resolutely she goes into the war to the limit and to the finish, and those who imagine that the weight of this nation does not count will find out to their sorrow in the final issue. Ultimately it will be a war of resources, and with the vast resources of this Republic thrown into the balance the outcome is not doubtful.

Not yet do our people realize the solemn and awful fact that we are at war. Slowly or by terrible shock the awakening will come, and every one of us, man, woman, and child, will have to face the fact. Grim war will exact its price and each must pay his part. All must stand together and each must do his bit, whether large or small,each for all and all for each one. Today all must know that the Republic exists not for what we can get out of it, but for what we can put into it, even to the "last full measure of devotion.' It means sacrifice, discipline of mind and body, industry, economy, a sense of common responsibility and a common destiny. Those who are fit for the first line must not falter, and behind them in the second line, and third line, must stand a nation cemented as one man, with one aim, one faith.

There is something that every one can do. In war food is as essential as shells, and the hoe is as powerful as the sword. Those who help to produce more food relieve the common burden by so much. Most of us can do without something, forego some luxury, some extravagance, and thus help build up the national resources. To that extent, at least, every one of us can aid in the national service, and if each one does a little the sum of our doing is very great. Such sacrifices will do away with things tawdry and artificial, and bring us into a new sense of unity, and a new joy of comradeship in the service of the common welfare. Even the man who cannot, for reasons of conscience, be a soldier, can find a work to do - as Whitman did in the Civil War. And it is also a matter of conscience whether a man has a moral right to enjoy the protection of a Flag which he is unwilling to support and defend.

What can Masonry do? Much, very much, in keeping our hearts kind and our minds clear, the while it seeks to soften the horrors of war as it has always done in the past. Its temple has ever been a shrine of patriotic faith and loyalty. Its altar keeps the signal lights of liberty aglow. If Masonry cannot fight, Masons can. Like Warren, like Washington, like Paul Jones, every Mason under our Flag will do his bit up to the hilt for the faith of nations, for the freedom of the world, for the rights of humanity and a better day to be. Let every man do his bit and stick it.

"For He that worketh high and wise,
Nor pauses in His plan,
Will take the sun out of the skies
Ere freedom out of man."

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With right do we celebrate the bicentennial of the founding of the Mother Grand Lodge of England, in June, 1917. That St. John the Baptist's day was a date forever memorable in the history of Freemasonry. No doubt it will be observed with appropriate and impressive exercises in all jurisdictions, except perhaps those of Germany. From that Grand Lodge organized on that June day in the Goose and Gridiron Ale-house, all regular Masonic Lodges of Master Masons are descended, and that fact alone gives the date a unique place in our annals.

Oddly enough, not much is known of the details of the transactions of that historic day. Unfortunately the minutes of Grand Lodge only commence on June 24th, 1723, and our only history of the event is that found in the New Book of Constitutions, by James Anderson, in 1738. However, if not an actor in the scene, he was in a position to know the facts from eyewitnesses, and his book was approved by the Grand Lodge itself. Just why so little care was taken to make record of that day and its doings, which divide the story of Masonry into before and after, is not easy to know. The record of Anderson is meager indeed, and Preston added very little information. Who were present, beyond the names of a few officers mentioned, has so far eluded research, and the only variation in the accounts is found in a rare old book called Multa Paucis, which asserts that six Lodges, not four, were represented.

Apparently it was in no sense a revolution, but a revival of the old quarterly Assembly, born of a felt need of community of action for the welfare of the Craft. Nor was it an innovation, but, as Anderson said, "it should meet according to ancient usage," tradition having become authoritative. Hints of what the old usages were are given in the observance of St. John's Day as a feast, in the democracy of the order and its manner of voting by show of hands, in its deference to the older Brethren, its use of badges of office, its ceremony of installation, all in a Lodge duly tyled. Apparently, too, it was intended only for Lodges in London, as is intimated in the Constitutions of 1723, with no thought of imposing its authority upon the country in general, much less upon the world. Perhaps no one dreamed that the chain welded that day would grow link by link until "it put a girdle around the earth." Of the four Lodges known to have taken part, only one had a majority of Accepted Masons in its membership, the other three being Operative Lodges, or largely so. Obviously, then, the movement had its origin within Masonry, and was not, as has so often been claimed, the design of men who simply made use of operative Masonry the better to exploit some hidden philosophy.

From whatever point of view that day and date are profoundly significant, not only for Masonry, but for the world. For Masonry it was more than a transition; it was a transformation, as may be seen by comparing the earlier Constitutions or Charges with that adopted in 1717; and especially the article concerning religion. If that article had been written yesterday, it would be remarkable enough. But when we read it in the light of that time, when sectarian rancor was so bitter, it rises up as one of the great prophetic documents of the race! The temper of the times was all for relentless partisanship, both in religion and politics. How eloquent then that pronouncement of men who felt cramped alike by narrowness of ritual and narrowness of creed, and who cried out for room and air, for liberty and charity, for friendship and fraternity ! Unsectarian in religion, they were also pleading for a basis of fellowship large enough for all parties, one principle being its foundation - love of country, respect for law and order, and the desire for human welfare.

Two hundred years have only justified the insight and wisdom of the founders of the mother Grand Lodge, and it will be ill with our order if ever we depart from its principle and spirit. Our celebration of that event should also be a rededication of ourselves and our fraternity to those far-shining truths which time has approved and experience vindicated. Let us also make it an inspiration to more heroic service of a Fraternity whose spirit was never more needed than today when the world is torn with war and stained with blood - to assert the fact, to spread the spirit, and to promote the practice of Brotherly Love, Relief, and Truth. In the awful apocalypse of war the Mission of Masonry stands out like a star of hope, by which to take our bearings in an angry storm of passion and hate, and find our way toward a better day - a Morning Star for brave men to follow with morning faces, seeking the Light of the Eternal.

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Brethren of the Society will please keep in mind that from now on all Communications should be sent to this office. If it is desired that any such shall receive personal answers from Brother Newton, we will forward them to him. Questions will be referred from this office to Brethren who have kindly volunteered to answer, if within the purview of their particular line of research. The Correspondence Column will be open to Members desiring to discuss the questions raised in the Department of Personal Opinion.
— Geo. L. Schoonover, Secretary, Anamosa, Iowa.

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As this is the last issue of The Builder over which ye Editor will preside, he wishes to thank his Brethren one and all for their kindness, their co-operation, and their brotherly regard; and to wish them good speed in their quest of that which was lost, in the finding of which we find ourselves. If any word of his has wounded the heart of any Brother, he humbly begs forgiveness, the more so because it was not so intended. Workmen come and go, but the Great Work of spreading the light of wise and good and beautiful truth goes on, others taking up the torch when we let it fall. Other foundation can no man lay than the great, eternal truths, and happy is he who adds a single stone to that Temple "building and built upon" which humanity is building in the midst of the years. What though his name vanish, and his Mark be worn away by the winds and weathers of times to come, it does not matter if he has wrought wisely and faithfully. The Building rises slowly to bless and shelter the pilgrim host, even if the builder crosses the sea now so full of peril - or the other Sea whose waves are years and whose depth is Eternity.

There should be no need to urge our Brethren to be loyal to the Society and its ideal, which means so much for the future of the Fraternity. Our connection with it will be as close as possible, as earnest as ever in days agone, and as active as time and many labors will allow. Most earnestly we request all our contributors to continue that generous aid, without which The Builder would have been impossible: its pages are open to their best and noblest thought. Our service here-after, as an Ambassador, will bring other students and writers to join the company, and thus enrich the fellowship of brotherly men in search of the truth. Right heartily, albeit with a sad heart, we wave not a farewell, but an Au Revoir; and if any Member of this Society is a visitor in England after the war, we trust he will find his way to the City Temple in old London town and give us the honor and the joy of knowing him.

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Scowling and growling will make a man old;
Money and fame at the best are beguiling;
Don't be suspicious and selfish and cold -
Try smiling.

Happiness stands like a maid at your gate;
Why should you think you could find her by roving?
Never was greater mistake than to hate, -
Try loving.
— John Esten Cooke.

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"Voices From German Masonry"

A RECENT issue of the Open Court, edited by Brother Paul Carus, reproduces excerpts from an article by Ernst Schultze which appeared originally in the Mitteilungen aus dem Verein deutscher Friemaurer, which gives us the point of view of German Masons during the war - and their inability to see the point of view of any other people, which has had more to do with causing the war, and continuing it, than anything else. It is the quality of the German mind -its tragic defect, as some of us think - that it does not possess that little mirror which enables those who own it to see how other people think and feel; and this fatal defect shows itself in this article concerning Masonry. Here we learn that only German Masonry is right and sound, French and Latin Masonry being too nearly atheistic, and English Masonry too dogmatically Christian.

Masonry is defined as a Society which does not plead for any patriotism, but stands for the ideal of humanity; and yet most of the article is taken up with an apology - no, a justification - for German nationalism and a defense of the atrocities of which the German army has been guilty! It does, however, admit that the German conscience has been troubled by the "merciless necessity" of the invasion and ruin of Belgium; but insists that "while we fight for our German homes against half the world, while we conquer and kill and die, we are preserving our interests and at the same time the truest interests of our enemies. For it is - however strange it may sound - in the highest and truest interest of our enemy to be conquered and subdued by the German people. Whoever cannot believe this has certainly allowed his humanitarian ideal to come to grief."

Not simply half the world, but since this article was written practically the whole of it, including the American Republic, has allowed its "humanitarian ideal" to come to grief, stupidly declining to have the "superior" German Kultur - a word that now stinks to the skies - imposed upon it, shot into it, for its own good. It is this insufferable arrogance, with its moral obtuseness, and its union of pious idealism with inhuman barbarism, that has dumbfounded the world, and then disgusted it, evoking that tempest of world-opinion in rebuke of it. What hope is there, upon such a basis and in such a spirit, that the words of the poet which the writer quotes will be fulfilled -

"That the human race become
One united brotherhood,
Sharing truth and light and right," -

which means, manifestly, German truth, German light, German right? Sharing it, moreover, at the behest of the bayonet, to an accompaniment of rape, loot, the murder and mutilation of little children on land and systematic assassination on the sea ! Never before or this earth have such ideas been announced outside of an insane asylum !

Truly, if this is the Voice of German Masonry, it may be the voice of Jacob, but its hands are the hands of Esau - the outlaw ! It is idle to prate about an idea of humanity, if by that is meant the brutal conquest of the world by one tribe whose vanity is only equalled by its inhumanity. Either we must learn to live on this earth with mutual regard between men and nations each people developing its peculiar genius - that which is unique and precious in its soil, for the enrichment of all - or all die together in the struggle. How dreadful it all is, confounding our hearts, and making the very soul turn sick within us. No, no, if German Masonry, like everything else German, has thus bowed down to Moloch, it behooves the Masonry of the world to rekindle the Light of liberty, justice and mercy on earth!

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At last the long-expected book by Brother Dr. William Hammond, Librarian of the Grand Lodge of England, has arrived on this side of the water. It is entitled "Masonic Emblems and Jewels, Treasures at Freemason's Hall, London," and is published by George Philip & Son, 32 Fleet Street. If we confess that it is rather disappointing, it is our own fault, and clearly due to a misunderstanding on our part as to the full nature of the contents. Our thought was that it would not confine itself to emblems and jewels, but would be a story of the Library of the Grand Lodge, and its treasures of manuscript, old documents, editions, and resources. We regret that our own misunderstanding has led others to expect more from the book that the plan of the author justified. Unfortunately, on this side of the sea Brethren attach less importance to Masonic Emblems and Jewels, decorated aprons and Masonic china, than in England, and this fact, we fear will greatly limit interest in a book which, within its limits and for its purpose, is an admirable piece of work. The author gives us a hint, in his introductory note, that the work may be carried further, and "that a continuation of this book may at some near date be issued, dealing perhaps more strictly and fully, with a closely defined study of pictures, books, manuscript and medals." Such a study has more than an antiquarian interest, in that not a little light is thrown upon the use, if not the meaning, of certain emblems as employed by the Brethren who went before us, giving us glimpses betimes of the inner life of former centuries. In a brief introduction the author sketches the origin and growth of Masonry, going in quest of its ancestry as far back as the Lost Atlantis of which Plato and Plutarch wrote - in order to account for the similarity of symbolism and building between Egypt and Central America. It is an interesting theory, worth what it is worth, opening a long vista of speculation. The book contains eighteen colored plates and forty-two half-tone plates, covering a wide range of emblems, aprons, certificates, medals, and Masonic treasures, with descriptions and discussions of each. We congratulate the author, both for his work and for the promise of a second volume revealing the wealth of lore and relic in Freemason's Hall.

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Timely and to the point were the ringing words of Grand Master Arthur J. Weir, of Oklahoma, in his annual address, in reference to the present situation of the nation and the world. Foreign born, he is typical of the vast majority of those good men and true who who sought a nobler fatherland in America, whose ideals he loves and whose principles are a part of his very life. His words are so good that we would keep them going:

"In this great American Republic, do we appreciate the great heritage the Founders of this nation have left us, in which each individual is a sovereign, with a voice in all the activities and policies of the commonwealth in which he lives and in the Nation at large; the liberty of speech and conscience, and the freedom of the press, such as few other countries enjoy. As Masons, let us not fall short of our full duty to God, our country, and ourselves, and guard well such splendid privileges, and stand by the greatest Flag of all.' We, the children of many lands, salute thee, symbol of beauty and glory, emblem of what we aim to be, and what we have done. My Brethren, it may seem strange to you that a foreign-born citizen should give expression to such sentiments, but did you ever stop to think that it is an historical fact that the first salute to our flag from a foreign power was demanded and received by a thoroughbred Scotchman, Admiral John Paul Jones? Our George Washington was of English descent. LaFayette was French, and at a more recent period of our history a sturdy American patriot, Carl Schurz, banished from his native land by despotic rule, was a German. At this crucial moment of our history let us not be too critical of our foreign citizenship. They are entitled to revere the country in which they were born. In my opinion the man who does not cherish his mother country is no man at all. But should the time come I believe you will find the foreign-born citizens marching shoulder to shoulder with native-born Americans to the defense of the Flag."

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  • Masonic Emblems and Jewels, by William Hammond. George Philip & Son, London. $1.50.
  • The Strange Ways of God, by C. R. Brown. Pilgrim Press, Boston. 75 cents.
  • Fruit Gathering, by R. Tagore. Macmillan Co. $1.00.
  • The Singing Man, by J. P. Peabody. Houghton, Mifflin Co., Boston. $1.00.
  • The Practice of Immortality, by W. Gladden. Pilgrim Press. 25 cents.

We have installed another chair in The Library. It will be occupied by Brother H. L. Haywood, one of our Iowa confreres. He purposes first to link up The Library with the Study Club Department, by reviewing for us a dozen or more of the Masonic Classics, telling the neophyte what he may expect to find in them.

Brother Haywood brings to this task a mind and scholarship peculiarly adapted to the work, with which, in other fields, he is thoroughly familiar. Experienced both as a teacher and a book-reviewer, he has during the past year made a great success in the conduct of one of the finest Study Clubs with which it has been our pleasure to come in touch - that at Waterloo, Iowa. With this fund of practical knowledge and a discriminating and careful reading of the best in Masonic literature already completed, we may reasonably expect that this Department will continue to be a delightful guide to the sojourner in the Library.

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Lay thy soft hand upon my brow and cheek,
O peaceful sleep ! until from pain released
I breathe again uninterrupted breath !
Ah, with what subtle meaning did the Greek
Class thee the lesser mystery at the feast
Whereof the greater mystely is death.
— Longfellow.

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Every day that is born into the world comes like a burst of music, and rings itself all day through; and thou shall make of it a dance, a dirge, or a life march as thou wilt. - Carlyle.

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Both points beneath the square,
Darkness, doubts, dungeons of despair,
Yet trusting in God who answers prayer,
Follow your guide - nor fear nor care,
Light will come with effulgent glare.

One point above the square,
As yet but partially there
Is light; for more light prepare,
As you ascend the winding stair.

Both points above the square -
Friendship and Morality share
With Brotherly Love, tenets taught where
Masons kneel, and vow, and swear.
— Odillon B. Slang

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Brother Editor: - Will you be kind enough to tell me where I can find the poem by Henry Van Dyke called The Lost Word ? I have heard about it, but have never seen it. So far I have been unable to find it.
— F.H.L.

It is not a poem but a short story, and may be found in a collection of stories by Van Dyke, entitled "The Blue Flower,"6, in which all the stories have a parabolic or symbolical significance. It is a very striking story indeed, albeit Christian in atmosphere, but it has a wider meaning than perhaps its author realized, as is often true of stories of that kind. With a few paragraphs omitted it would make an excellent reading for a Masonic gathering.

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Brother Editor: - I do not know whether I ought to ask it or not, but I have often wondered why preachers limit Brotherhood by the phrase "in Christ." To me a brother is a brother, regardless of his creed. Perhaps you can explain.
— T.J.D.

Steady now. How should we know the answer? Instead, let us listen to Charles Kingsley, one of the great preachers, who puts these words into the mouth of one of his characters in "Alton Lock," a story little read in these days, perhaps, but which was full of the prophetic spirit that will yet reshape the world. Listen:

"Ask the preachers. Gin they meant brothers, they'd say brothers, be sure; but because they don't mean brothers at all, they say brethren - ye'll mind, brethren - to sound antiquate and professional, and profunctorylike, for fear it should be over real, and practical, and startling, and all that, and then they just limit it down with an 'in Christ,' for fear of over wide application." Is that it? Ask the preachers!

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"Our Country"

Dear Brother: - I or some months the Chicago Tribune has carried at the top of its editorial column the saying of Stephen Decatur, "Our Country! In her intercourse with foreign nations may she always be in the right; but our country, right or wrong." To me that seems not only unsound, but almost stupid. But perhaps I do not read it right. I am loyal to my country, if I know my heart, but is not that going too far? Shall I support my country when I believe it to be in the wrong - support the wrong? Does patriotism obliterate moral distinction? I am speaking in the general, not in reference to the war, but as to the principle involved.
— S.H.M.

For our part, we believe the principle involved in the saying of Decatur is sound, and for the following reasons. Patriotism does not obliterate moral distinctions - far from it. Nor does the majority make a thing right, necessarily. Not at all. Often the few have been right as against the many. But the larger, profounder allegiance is more important and binding than the temporary difference. For example, apply it to the family, and the nation is but an extension of the family, and grew out of it. Suppose your son does something with which you cannot agree, which you think wrong. You may rebuke it, condemn it - but he is still your son. You may not indorse or condone what he does, but you will stand by him if you have the heart of a man and a father. Not on account of a temporary difference would you forsake him in trouble - never! Just so, no citizen can always agree with the policy of his country, but it is his country none the less, and his agreement with it is deeper than the difference. Otherwise, chaos would come. Some of our people were opposed to our Republic going into the war, some from policy, some from principle, some from prejudice.

They had a right to express their dissent, and did so. But our country went into the war. As to the application of the Decatur principle, there can be no question now in any right-thinking mind. If a man feels, on conscience, that he cannot be a soldier, he can help in some capacity - as Walt Whitman did in the Civil War. No man has a moral right - on conscience - to live under a flag and enjoy its protection if he is unwilling to support and defend it. Just now the words of Emerson ring true for some of us:

"United States ! the ages plead,
Present and past in under-song,
Go put your creed into your deed,
Nor speak with double tongue.
Be just at home; then write your scroll
Of honor o'er the sea,
And bid the broad Atlantic roll,
A ferry of the free!"

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Women And Masonry

Dear Brother: – May I take the liberty of asking a question which I have no doubt will seem foolish to you, but for which I have no answer? My wife asked me why women cannot become Masons. Can you give. me an answer ?
– D. J. T.

  1. It is no reflection on women that they are not admitted into Masonic lodges. Their character, their spirituality, their fidelity in all great fellowships are in nowise questioned, much less their intelligence. In some countries and rites they are admitted, as they were in the ancient Mysteries – albeit in not many lands were women admitted into the Greater Mysteries.
  2. It is no discredit to Masonry that women are not members of its lodges. There is nothing in any rite, or in any degree, which the noblest woman might not hear or see to her profit. The grandeur of its truth, the dignity and solemnity of its ceremonies, the beauty of its spirit would appeal to women as they do to men.
  3. Yet the presence of women in Masonic lodges would alter the character of the Order, and turn it aside from its original purpose and mission. The Masonic lodge perpetuates among us the Men's House of ancient society, and as such has a definite and distinctive aim which would be greatly modified, if not defeated, by the presence of women.
  4. Psychologically, as every man and woman knows, the atmosphere of a mixed assembly is unlike that of a gathering of either sex alone. It may be impalpable and hard to define, but it is none the less real. There is more restraint, both as to good and ill. Men and women are equal but unlike, and when they are brought together the mental climate is changed. At any rate, a man gets something from fellowship with men alone which he does not and cannot get, in the same degree, in a mixed company.
  5. Women were never builders of great temples; that is the work of men. The symbolism of Masonry, and all its suggestions, being derived from the art of architecture – which is peculiarly the art of man – would not appeal to women as it does to man. Moreover, the tradition and habit of the Order have kept it true to the purposes of the Men's House, and it would be unwise to change it. No benefit, so far as we can see – and instead much harm – would come of admitting women into the Masonic Order.

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Brother Editor: - Can you not give us the references in the poems and stories of Kipling to Masonry and things Masonic? I know some of them, but not all.
— G.W.H.

  1. Well, as to the poems, the allusions to things Masonic are so well- known as to hardly need pointing out. The Mother Lodge, The Palace, The Widow of Windsor - Queen Victoria - the Rough Ashlar, are familiar to all. The refrain of The Mother Lodge is well worth noting, it being an expression of what happens in Military Lodges, as corroborated by Gould in his work on "Military Lodges."
  2. The allusions in the stories are many indeed, some of them veiled, and others not veiled as much as they should be, at least they are so obvious to a Mason that he may think them sky-clear to everybody else. There is, to begin with, the famous story of "The Man Who Would be King" - one of the finest short-stories in the language - which is a masterpiece. It contains so much Masonic lore, and deep knowledge of the history and origin of the degrees, that the author almost abuses his knowledge, or else his imagination is uncanny. It tells of two Masons who sought to establish a kingdom of their own among the tribes of North-west India, and they find that the natives are well acquainted with the first two degrees. What befalls them the story relates. "With the Main Guard" is another story in which Masonic phrases and ideas are interwoven so skilfully that only a Master Mason can grasp their significance; so also such stories as On the Great Wall, The Winged Hat, and Hal o' the Draft. The references are not specifically Masonic - that is, they do not quote the ritual point-blank - yet they are unmistakable. There is a rather unhappy allusion, also, in "The City Walls." Perhaps "Kim" is Kipling's masterpiece, and there is a vein of Freemasonry connected with the youthful days of the hero. Kim, a young Irish orphan, living freely among the natives, almost becomes one of them in thought, manner, and appearance. One night, approaching a regiment on a route march, he is taken prisoner, and is brought before the Church of England clergyman. Around his neck was found his father's Masonic certificate which the clergyman, being a Mason, recognized. When asked where he got it, Kim answered: "My father, he got these papers from Jadoo Gher - what do you call that, because he was in good standing." Then follows much which is of Masonic interest. In "Traffics and Discoveries" there is a scene where the writer is distributing papers amongst the Boer prisoners at Simon's Bay, and he gomes across Zeigler, a nervy American gun-inventor, who is a prisoner. He seizes eagerly the papers, and says suddenly, "Oh, The American Tyler, by all that's good," and tore off rapidly the covering, saying to the writer, "Do you happen to know?" and they shook hands expertly. This, with other Masonic episodes and sayings, are tucked in so neatly that the outside world can never see, or understand them. Of course this list is not complete, but mayhap it may make the Kipling stories more interesting, if that is possible, to Masonic readers.

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York And Scottish Rites

Brother Editor: - As I am practically a beginner in the vast study of Masonry, having been initiated into the third Degree only last October, I am going to ask you if you will be so kind as to explain to me either through letter or in The Builder the difference between the York Rite and the Scottish Rite of Masonry, or, if this is too great a task for your time, could you refer me to some book which would give me the information?
— W.J.D.

  1. In respect to the first three degrees they are the same, the Scottish Rite having given up those degrees to the York Rite, as we call it. The first three degrees as presented by the Scottish Rite were in some ways different from what they are in our Blue Lodges, following more closely the French Rite. This led to misunderstanding, and so in behalf of harmony the Scottish Rite abandoned its right to confer them - and wisely so. In general the differences - beyond the first three degrees - is that the York Rite adheres more closely to old Craft Masonry, both in its legends and symbols; at least until it arrives at the Templar Degrees. The higher degrees of the York Rite are thus only elaborations and expositions of the central theme and motif of the first three degrees - the whole woven about the building, destruction, and re-building of the Temple. Whereas the Scottish Rite ranges into many fields untouched by the York Rite; it is more elaborate, more philosophical - a kind of Masonic University, so to speak, if we think of the York Rite as a College. Besides, the Scottish Rite, in our Northern jurisdiction, is more tinged with Christianity than Craft Masonry - albeit not so in the Southern jurisdiction. If the York Rite assumes tolerance of different religious opinions, drawing men together upon a common basis by a common bond, the Scottish Rite emphasizes not only toleration, but champions freedom of thought, training men to be advocates of it.
  2. Therefore, in reach and range of truth, in variety and richness, as in splendor of presentation and eloquence of appeal, the two Rites differ - yet it is ever the same essential spirit, the same far-shining principle, that they teach "each in its own tongue." One builds the temple, the other shows us the temple built, with its elaborate and stately ritual - revealing the eternal religion without superstition, and making plea for government without tyranny. The Scottish Rite is for the man who is not afraid to think, who is willing fearlessly to confront the great problems of faith and philosophy and the fundamental issues of life. Not abstractly, not in a dry-as-dust fashion, but with every variety of emphasis and appeal, bringing art to the service of the truth, it leads us through a chamber of imagery and teaches us wise and good and beautiful truth - the truths that make us men and set us free from fear of life, fear of death, and from "those blind thoughts we know not nor can name."

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Dear Editor: - What are the American Boys that are Masons to do when in Camp? Ought there not to be some concerted action taken this year when the Grand Masters get in session to provide for the establishment of Camp and Field Lodges ? It seems to me that this ought to be worked out and after the war to let those who are initiated in such Lodges affiliate with their home Lodge and it ought to be done "without objection." A brother who has served his country and is in good standing with his Field or Camp Lodge ought not to have to run the gauntlet of the Black Ball in order to affiliate with the Lodge at his home.

I should like to have the opinion of some of the brethren on this point. I feel that much good could be accomplished, and that much interest in Masonry would be shown by something of this sort, and that the cause of Brotherhood, Relief and TRUTH could be materially advanced by them.
Sincerely and fraternally yours, S. W. Williams, Tenn.

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In his splendid article on The Perfect Ashlar, Brother Kingsbury states that, although this symbol is dismissed with two or three brief sentences in our monitorial lectures, it is in reality of considerable importance and interest.

This fact is easily demonstrated by quotations from several writers.

The first is Frank C. Higgins, who in a series of forty papers brought together in a volume entitled "The Beginning of Masonry," makes a number of interesting references to this figure.

Among others we find:

"The cube itself was an age-old symbol of the spiritual man and therefore we find the cube present in all the ancient mythologies, which were but racial cloaks for one and the same wisdom religion, understood by the priests of all countries as a symbol of the sixth sign of the zodiac, the characters portraying the great Mother of Wisdom and her divine son Man."

"As a cube possesses six sides, each of which is a perfect square, a number of remarkable mathematical and geometrical symbols were established upon the fact that all the numbers" – of the edges – "from one to 12 added together produce 78. This number is also the sum of 3 times '26,' the numerical value of the great and sacred name of Jehovah (JHVH)."

To understand this paragraph it is necessary to be acquainted with the Gematria, the number-letter system of the Greeks and Hebrews which Brother Higgins explains in one of the chapters of his book. In this system the numerical value of J is 10; that of H, 5; that of V, 6; and of H, 5 as before. Added together they total 26.

"David, having been a warlike monarch, was not permitted to achieve that which he had begun and so bequeathed the cubical stone to his son Solomon, who made use of it as the corner stone of the Temple. The imagery of this is plain enough in the fact that, not in the written or engraved inscription, but in the mathematical proportions of the cube itself, was to be found that wonderful Name, which is, as it were, the foundation of the universe, of which man is a fleshly epitome and the Temple on Mt. Moriah a symbolic one."

"The grand mystery name of our Creator, called the Tetragrammaton (Greek for "four letter name"), has as its root the three letters JHV which, as numbers were 10, 5 and 6, or 21, the sum of the added numbers 1 to 6 represented a single cube. This was the form of the "Holy of Holies," in the great Temple of Solomon, and the pious Jew, to this day, employs the two symbolic cubes, in the form of the Phylacteries."

Leaving Higgins, whom we by no means exhaust, let us note the vertical cross section of the "Holy of Holies" as given in McCarty's valuable book entitled "The Great Pyramid Jeezeh," as well as his explanation of the kabbalistic matters connected with the Temple description.

"The astronomical features about the temple were plain. The entrance was toward the rising sun, or the vernal equinox. The "holy of holies" was in the west of the structure, toward the place of the setting sun, the autumnal equinox. The great quadrangular was oriented and faced to the four winds, or N., E., S., and W. The brazen sea had on its ledges the ox, the cherub or man, and the lion. The lion was the sign of the summer, the man of the winter and the ox of the spring. The sign of Autumn, or Dan, was left out- -that worm all devouring, never dying, the scorpion. This has an architectural parallel. Nork relates that the temple of Notre Dame, in Paris, was formerly a temple of the goddess Isis, or the sign Virgo. On this temple was sculptured the zodiac with its signs; that of Virgo (Isis) was left out, because the whole temple was dedicated to her. So with the temple of Solomon. The whole religious cultus of the Israelites was located in the sign Dan, or Scorpio, for it was here that 'I have waited for thy salvation, O Lord (Jehovah).' Take the two squares of the zodiac, representing two quarters, or quadrants, of the year; one lorded over by Leo, the lion, next to the summer solstice, and then going west and downward, the second quadrant is reached, extending to the winter solstice, and lorded over by Dan, the scorpion, who holds the entrance. This upper square, or cube, is golden, the male, full of the fructifying power of the sun; the lower one is the female, and black, the womb, the brazen part. Now it will be seen that Solomon, the son of David, of the tribe of Judah, whose sign was the lion, made all the gold work. But it was Huram that made the brazen sea and all the brass work. Who was Huram? The son of a widow, a woman of dark or black weeds, of the tribe of Dan, whose sign was the Scorpion. He made the work pertaining to his portion of the zodiac- -that is the place of Typhon, of winter, of darkness, of woman. So, here is represented the western half, and the summer and winter quarters of the celestial sphere, squared or cubed."

Here we note that McCarty claims that Hiram was the son of a widow belonging to the tribe of Dan. Opposed to this we have Higgin's statement "that the widow of Osiris and the mother of Horus, was of the tribe of Naphtali." He is borne out in this by Pike – Morals and Dogma, page 461 – where he states that "Virgo, the domicile of Mercury, is borne on the flag of Naphtali, whose eloquence and agility Jacob magnifies, both of which are attributes of the Courier of the Gods."

These conflicting statements may have their explanation in this note by Stewart in his index to Morals and Dogma: "Originally only ten signs were exoteric; two were secret. Libra conceals one, and Virgo-Scorpio are now separated, but even this is a blind."

We do not yet exhaust McCarty on the subject of the cube, for in his discussion of the Quadrature of the Circle, by Parker, he writes: "The cube unfolded, becomes, in superficial display, a cross proper, or of the tau form, and the attachment of the circle to the last gives the ansated cross of the Egyptians, with its obvious meaning of the origin of measures. Because, also, this kind of measure was made to co-ordinate with the origin of human life, it was secondarily made to assume the type of the pudenda hermaphrodite, and, in fact, it is placed by representation to cover this part of the human person in the Hindu form. It is very observable that, while there are but six faces to a cube, the representation of the cross as the cube unfolded, as to the cross bars, displays one face of the cube as common to two bars, counted as belonging to either; then while the faces originally represented are but six, the use of the two bars counts the square as four for the upright and three for the cross-bar, making seven in all. Here we have the famous 4 and 3 and 7. But what is very much to the purpose here, is that the golden candlestick in the temple was so composed that, counting on either side, there are four candle-sockets; while, at the apex, there being one in common to both sides, there were in fact three to be counted on one side and four on the other, making in all the number seven, upon the self same idea of one in common with the cross display… The same idea is conveyed in the six days of the week in Genesis, crowned by the seventh, which was used by itself as a base of circular measure.

"The ansated cross, being surmounted by the circle, roughly represents the figure of a man, with arms extended. The attachment of a man to the cross symbolizes the welding of astronomical and circular values. In fact, this is a plainer and more perfect symbolism of the ancient use than any other. It was one made use of in this form of display by the Hindus. In fact, the Old Testament is rabbinically and kabbalistically familiar with the expression of crucifying a man, or men before the Lord and the sun. In symbol, the nails of the cross have for the shape of the heads thereof a solid pyramid, and a tapering square obeliscal shaft, for the nail. Taking the position of the three nails in the man's extremities, and on the cross, they form or mark a triangle in shape, one nail being at each corner of the triangle. The wounds, or stigmata, in the extremities are necessarily four, distinctive of the square; and, as in the candlestick, there have been two used as one, or rather one used as two, in the connection of the three nails with the four extremities. The three nails with the three wounds are in number 6, which denotes the six faces of the cube unfolded, on which the man is placed; and this in turn points to the circular measure transferred on to the edges of the cube. The one wound of the feet separates into two when the feet are separated, making three together for all, and four when separated, or seven in all – another and most holy feminine base number."

Now let us turn to the 16th verse of the 21st chapter of Revelations. There we read "and the city lieth foursquare, and the length is as large as the breadth; and he measured the city with the reed, twelve thousand furlongs. The length and the breadth and the height of it are equal."

Here we have a description of a cube. But let us quote Pryse's translation and his explanation of the figure as given in the introduction to his volume, "The Initiation of Ioannes."

"The deathless solar vesture of the Conqueror is symbolized as a city which comes down out of the sky, enveloped in the radiance of the God, and it is portrayed with poetic imagery of exquisite beauty. The description, with its wealth of detail, should be enough to show clearly what the city really is; but Ioannes has supplied conclusive proof of the true meaning by inserting in the description a puzzle which reads as follows:

"The Divinity who was talking with me had for a measure a golden reed, to measure the city, its gateways, and its wall. The city lies foursquare, and its length is as great as the width. He measured the city with the reed, by stadia, twelve thousand; its length, width and height are equal. And he measured its wall, one hundred and forty-four cubits, (including) the measure of a man, that is, of a Divinity.

"As the expression "by stadia" (epi stadion) shows that the measurement should not be taken in stadia, it naturally follows that it should be reduced to miles. Therefore, dividing 12,000 by 7 1/2, the number of stadia to the Jewish mile, the quotient is 1,600, and this is the numerical value of the words to heliakon soma, "the solar body." (The number 1,600 is found also in chapter xiv:20, where it has the same significance). In the authorized version the preposition epi, "by," is not translated, being omitted as redundant – which merely shows the untrustworthiness of an empirical translation. That version also reads, "a hundred and forty and four cubits, (according to) the measure of a man, that is, of an angel," the inserted words making the passage meaningless. The "wall" of the solar body is its aura, or "radiance," he doxa; but the letters of that name amount to only 143. As a puzzle, that number would be too transparent, nor would it harmonize with the other numbers given in relation to the city as the twelve thousand stadia, twelve gateways, twelve foundations, etc., all of which have a real or an apparent reference to the zodiac. Therefore Ionnes increased it to 144, the square of twelve, by adding another alpha, (a) which he calls "the measure of a man, that is, of a Divinity." In the formula, "I am the Alpha and the O (mega), the first and the last," alpha is the symbol of the divine man, or Divinity, before his fall into matter; and O mega is the symbol of the perfected man, who has passed through the cycle of reincarnation and regained the spiritual consciousness.

"The city is described as having the form of a cube. To solve this element of the puzzle it is only necessary to unfold the cube, thereby disclosing a cross, which represents the human form – a man with outstretched arms."

Thus we find the symbolism of the cube in connection with the religious systems of antiquity as well as in our great Masonic Light and monitorial lectures. It is, indeed, a symbol of considerable importance and interest.
— John G. Keplinger, Springfield, Ill.

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Are Lodges Degree Mills?

Editor Builder: - In a recent letter you note the extreme difficulty of introducing to the notice of Masons the study side, or the heart side of Masonry. The plain truth is that Masonry is very popular and prosperous, a condition that existed with variations in the '20s during the anti-Masonic excitement incident to the Morgan disappearance, during which period of persecution, proscription and ostracism about 75 per cent of the Craft fell away. Why did they fall away? The answer is found in the view taken that Masonry is not of Divine origin, that it perhaps dates from the building of Solomon's temple, or from the gilds of the Romans or Germans; that Masonry was once operative and later was speculative, a failure to recognize the Duality of Masonry; that there is a "Spirit of Masonry"; that Masonry has to do with the pscychic, or soul part of man, as well as the physical, the heart part, no matter in what age of the world he lived, had first to be touched before he was a Mason. This is known as the religious part of man, and is primitive; it was known before and recognized by Christ when he answered Nicodemus who wanted to know how he could be born again, when He said, "And thou Nicodemus, a master in Israel and knoweth not these things." Nicodemus' view was purely physical. The "Spirit of Masonry is the life of Masonry," which is a self-evident fact, for all things physical die. Masonry has not died, nor will it ever die. The spiritual is recognized as the immortal part of man - the part that takes him out of the animal kingdom.

That a man must first be a Mason at heart is too often lightly passed over, with the result that Masonic Lodges are filled largely with physical Masons only. They know nothing about the spiritual or heart side, or the philosophical. Masonry teaches a perfect system for earthly life, and in the end will assist the true Mason to climb the ladder which Jacob saw in his vision. Well, what has all this to do with interesting the brethren in the study side? Perhaps to 75 per cent of Lodge membership it means nothing; doesn't appeal to them for the above reasons. "As a man thinketh so is he." Thoughtful Masons everywhere note the tendency of Lodges to degenerate into degree mills. The best Lodge is the one that does the most work," and the "brightest" Mason is the proficient degree worker. The brethren attend lodge when there is "work" to do or a "feed" spread. In the absence of these attractions, one-third or perhaps one-fourth of the membership attends. This age is material, physical, and mechanical. The cardinal virtues must be invoked to correct it. Masonry is the leaven that has brought the world out of chaos to its present condition; and if its present condition is not good, does it mean that the leaven is not working, that the "salt has lost its savor?"
— A. K. Bradley, Texas.

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Another Pike Letter

Gentlemen: - Noting request in the April number of "The Builder" I follow with copy of letter from Albert Pike, now in my possession:

Or. of Washington,
24 July, 1881.
Dear Sir & Bro:
The statement which you copy is wholly apocryphal. There never was any such rite in 33 Degrees. No Masonic Power ever pretended to work such a Rite.

I thank you for your kind words and as my whole purpose has been to make of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite an instrument for good in the world, whereby men might be made wiser and better, I think that I may without impropriety confess that it gratifies and encourages me when intelligent men see somewhat of good in my work.

As I am now nearing the end of my 72d year I shall soon have completed my life work and must leave it to others to take up the work where I leave it. Perhaps what I have written may be even more effective after I am dead, for "it is the dead who govern, the living only obey."

Very truly yours,
Albert Pike.

Bro. A. C. Peters, M. D., 32d.

— Fraternally, Nelson L. Finch.

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A Correction

Dear Brother Editor:,Owing to a clerical error, the Aztec war chief "Ahuitzotl" appears in my article published in the May number of THE BUILDER, as being the one responsible for the destruction of the picture writings. This should have read "Itzcoatl," who was war chief from 1424 to 1440.

Trusting that you will find room for this correction in the June number, I am,
— Yours fraternally, Eber Cole Byam.

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Masonry and Politics

As soon as Freemasonry begins to meddle with politics, it is doomed. it loses its special significance, and it will incur all the odium of a powerful secret society, and will rouse enmity and hatred where now it has only goodwill - or, at any rate, tolerance - from those who know nothing of its principles and teachings. What Freemasons do in politics they must do as citizens, not as Freemasons.
— Oliver C. Cockren.

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