This is the Latin name for the place where Jesus's crucifixion took place, called in the Hebrew Golgotha, meaning a "skull." It is a small hill or eminence, situated due west from Mt. Moriah, on which the Temple of Solomon was built.

This small hill is identified with certain events referred to in the Third Degree. The fact that Mount Calvary is situated in a westward direction from the Temple, and near Mt. Moriah; that it is on the direct road from Jerusalem to Joppa; that it is outside the gate of the Temple, lend importance to Masonic legends. The cleft, or cave, in the rock forming this hill in which subsequently the burial of the body of Jesus was made also identifies Calvary with the spot where the weary traveler sat down to rest; and the resurrection of Jesus from this cave-sepulcher is most strikingly represented in Masonry.

Other interesting traditions relating to Mt. Calvary are preserved in Freemasonry. One is that it was the burial place of Adam, and that the place where he who brought ruin and death upon mankind was buried afterwards became the place where the Saviour of mankind died, was buried, and rose again.** **Another tradition relates the erection of a nine-arched vault by Enoch beneath the bowels of Mt. Calvary and that deposited on the foundation-stone was the Ineffable Name which is the symbol of Divine Truth in speculative Masonry. ( Luke 23:33,50-53 - Matthew 27:33,57-60 - Mark 15:22,42-46 - John 19:17,18 )

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Biblical References

Luke 23:33,50-53

33 And when they were come to the place, which is called Calvary, there they crucified him, and the malefactors, one on the right hand, and the other on the left.
50 And, behold, there was a man named Joseph, a counsellor; and he was a good man, and a just: 51 (The same had not consented to the counsel and deed of them;) he was of Arimathaea, a city of the Jews: who also himself waited for the kingdom of God. 52 This man went unto Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus. 53 And he took it down, and wrapped it in linen, and laid it in a sepulchre that was hewn in stone, wherein never man before was laid.

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Matthew 27:33,57-60

33 And when they were come unto a place called Golgotha, that is to say, a place of a skull.
57 When the even was come, there came a rich man of Arimathaea, named Joseph, who also himself was Jesus' disciple: 58 He went to Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus. Then Pilate commanded the body to be delivered. 59 And when Joseph had taken the body, he wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, 60 And laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the rock: and he rolled a great stone to the door of the sepulchre, and departed.

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Mark 15:22,42-46

22 And they bring him unto the place Golgotha, which is, being interpreted, The place of a skull.
42 And now when the even was come, because it was the preparation, that is, the day before the sabbath, 43 Joseph of Arimathaea, an honourable counsellor, which also waited for the kingdom of God, came, and went in boldly unto Pilate, and craved the body of Jesus. 44 And Pilate marvelled if he were already dead: and calling unto him the centurion, he asked him whether he had been any while dead. 45 And when he knew it of the centurion, he gave the body to Joseph. 46 And he bought fine linen, and took him down, and wrapped him in the linen, and laid him in a sepulchre which was hewn out of a rock, and rolled a stone unto the door of the sepulchre.

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John 19:17,18

17 And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha: 18 Where they crucified him, and two other with him, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst.

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This page is adapted from the Glossary at Phoenixmasonry — Used with permission.

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