Builder 1916 - Vol. 2 No. 10 - October 2

The Builder Magazine

October 1916 – Volume II – Number 10


Continued from Part 1


By Joseph Fort Newton

On The Sea

Prompt to the minute, on June 17, at noon, the Philadelphia moved from her pier and slowly turned to the open sea. The orchestra was playing, the decks were crowded, and perhaps a thousand people were waving farewells – among them a good Brother Mason who was kind enough to come and bid me good bye. It was a scene not soon to be forgotten. Surely, there is something infinite in every parting, and never more so than when the Sea is to separate us. Soon individual faces faded and we could only see the handkerchiefs fluttering signals of goodwill – handkerchiefs wet with tears.

New York, seen from the harbour, is a great picture indeed, albeit made less vivid by a haze of smoke and fog that hung over it. Suddenly the sun broke through the mist, and it seemed like a fairy city seen in a dream – a land of fairy cliff-dwellers ! No wonder Poole wrote his story of The Harbour and the romance of it. But the picture does not remain long, save in memory where our pictures hang. Dimmer and dimmer it grows, until at last it is a blur, and then a thin blue line, and finally it fades. No one may put into words his feelings at such an hour, when for the first time he leaves his native land and turns to the great open sea !

And the Sea! For an inlander like myself, it is a thing of wonder, at once a fact and a figure, a symbol and a parable. Like sky, like sea. If the sky is gray, so is the sea. If blue, the sea is blue – such a dark, rich blue. But it was very gray when we set sail. Soon a fog fell over us and we could hardly see the boat that met us to take our pilot off. And that fog-horn is terrifying ! What would life be if all our dangers made that much noise. Perhaps they do, only we do not hear the warnings.

But the fog soon lifted, like a curtain, and revealed the Sea ' The Sea ! the Sea ! so wide and grand, stretching away into infinity – yea, "The Sea is His, and He made it." All day long the great words of the Bible about the Sea kept coming to mind, with new meanings I had never guessed before. Truly that old Book is like a harp which says for us what our poor, dumb words cannot say. "There is sorrow upon the sea; it cannot be still," what words they are as one looks out over those restless, reinless waters. And there came also those other words, so freighted with meaning just now, "and the sea gave up the dead that were in it." But best of all the line of the Psalmist, "Thy way, O Lord, is in the sea."

Really, if I were a rich Pagan instead of a poor Mason, I would build a temple to the Sea. It is so strong and deep, so patient, merciful, and gracious, to ship or soul that bravely casts loose upon its mighty promises; so variable and cruel to the unpiloted and unseaworthy. It is a great burden-bearer. It cannot be overloaded. It cannot be broken down. It never grows weary. It never needs repairs. Also, it is a great physician. It rests the eye with its overpowering vastness of outlook. It calms the heart with its greatness and its never-ending music. It speaks to the mind of that Divine abyss over which the mystics brood but never fathom. It responds to every mood – now sad, now glad, now quietly meditative; it answers every call of the imagination, and can preach more sermons than all preachers. Besides, it is a great teacher. It lays its mighty law upon the restless spirit and tells us to stop sputtering – be still, listen, and know. And as we listen, the sighs of human care are lost in the murmur of its many waters. At last Restlessness, cut off from its supplies, surrenders to Rest.

Why did St. John leave the Sea out of his vision of heaven ? He foresaw a time when "there shall be no more sea." Why so? No doubt the exile on the Isle of Patmos, longing for the fair city of Ephesus, the scene of his ministry, and hungering for the sight of familiar faces, grew weary of the imprisoning sea. Sundered by leagues of tumbling waves from those he loved, he dreamed of a world where there would be "no sea." But it is not so now – not so much so at least. Once the symbol of separation, the sea has become a bond of union between lands and peoples. Once the dread of daring sailors, who, despite their dread, braved its dangers and discovered its paths, it has become the servant of man, yielding to the quiet power of intelligence. The sea of which Homer and Virgil sing is the unknown, untamed sea. We today sail a sea whose ways, waves and winds are an open book, and whose forces have been converted into beneficent ministries.

Still, Matthew Arnold speaks of "unplumbed, salt, estranging sea," by which he meant the awful isolation of each soul in an unfathomable universe. More often in English poetry – and indeed in all poetry, since Homer, that has in it the sound of the sea – the tidal rhythms of the sea, its measured waves and its immeasurable horizons, have been the great symbols of the Divine depth and mystery; just as the stars round off the three divisions of the Divine Comedy of Dante. The music of this deeper and more eternal sea rolls through all great poetry, and nowhere with more melody than in Shakespeare, who caught the very cadence of that unfathomable sea whose waves are years and whose depth is eternity.

How can a man be irreligious on the Sea? Are we not, all of us, now and forever, out on the bosom of the deep, with the infinite above, beneath, and about us? We feel secure enough indeed, thanks largely to the cheerful company, the dear faces, the duties and pieties of the day. Still, when at times we look over the edge of the boat, up starts a primitive terror which only faith can allay. Religion is a thing of the depths and for the depths. "Have mercy upon me, O Lord, my boat is so small, and Thine ocean is so great," – in that cry of the old Breton fisherman we have the profound instinct which lies at the heart of faith. Reason may serve us in shallow waters, but when life takes us beyond our depth, as it so often does, faith saves us. There will be companies of believing souls, so long as there are deep, unplumbed places in this life of ours.

But here I am a-preaching, as usual – from force of habit, no doubt. Yet there are worse things one could be guilty of. Moreover, I cannot help it. Last night I sat up on the upper deck of the ship near the prow, at midnight, long after others had gone to bed – except, of course, the guzzlers in the saloon. It was a clear cool night of stars, and the great sea lay spread out beneath. It was a still and holy hour in which the sea and the stars told me many things. Never did the great old words, "What is man, that Thou art mindful of him ?" come home with such awful majesty of simple truth to subdue the heart and still it. And yet, never did I have a more vivid sense of the greatness and worth of the soul as in that solemn trysting time. Then the ship bell rang out the hour, the watchman above cried, "All's Well," and I went to my couch knowing that if I sank it would be not into the sea, but beyond it !

Thus and so our good ship of Brotherly Love sails on and on, out over the blue rim of the world. Again and again one turns away from the Human Comedy on board to the mighty Sea whose lonely waters drift and sing! How indifferent it is to our human doings and undoings, how deaf to our jabbering gossip, its white caps suggesting shining teeth showing in laughter at our vanities. It knows nothing of the greatness of Kitchener, and buries him as quickly as it does the poor stoker dropped into a vast and wandering grave. Merciful when we obey her, merciless when we disobey, she lulls us to sleep at night as if the ship were a cradle rocked by an unseen hand. I have fallen in love with the Sea. As long as I live its mighty waters will whisper to my heart of "that immortal sea which brought us hither," and will receive us to its bosom "when that which drew from out the boundless deep, turns again home." Whatever betide, it is enough to know that
"There is a wideness in God's mercy,
Like the wideness of the Sea."

At Sea, June 22.

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By Bro. J. George Gibson, England

An Empire implies an Imperator; and it is evident that Freemasonry cannot be imperial even with the limitation of the widest and most free of all the Empires of the political world at its head. There was a time when we should have thought that Older which comprised among its membership representatives from every one of our British colonies must be sufficiently broad to satisfy all the demands of the imperial state. That time has long gone by. Freemasonry is no longer willing, or able, to accept the tutelage of even the greatest profane Empire, and cannot accept either the limitation which that tutelage implies. The Craft has discovered that it exists not on sufferance as an adjunct of social amelioration, but that it is as ancient as the oldest form of government, and has at least an equal empire with that of the mightiest of worldly political systems. The researches of the savants of Masonry, and the dreams of the more imaginative, have done a great deal to make it impossible for us to begin our history in the 17th or 18th centuries. We can no longer find the warrant for our landmark in the determination of the four London Lodes, or in the older custom and law of the older operative lodges. There may be a difference of opinion as he antiquity of the earth, and of the Masonic cult of ancient days; but it is evident to the most casual student that our authority is antecedent to even the erection of the pyramids of Egypt and elsewhere, and that we must base our imperial structure right back upon the foundations that are of most ancient readings of the Book of the Sacred Law. But whether we accept the theory of the experts of Masonic literature as to the Egyptian origin of human civilization, or date our authority from the comparatively recent Grand Lodges of Sinai and Jerusalem, in either case we find our prime authority in the command of the Creator, which moved holy men in divers ways, and at divers times to fix in labour the determination of the Divine. And every conception of the Masonic Empire must assume the Authority of the G. A. O. T. U., without which neither Masonry nor Empire can exist.

There have been of recent years many evident signs of a desire on the part of mankind, including both true Masons and those who are under the impression that they can be true Masons without recognizing the Supremacy of the Creator, to come nearer together in labour and in the manifestation of Masonic Brotherhood. With many of these overtures we are to some extent in sympathy, though not as Masons. We recognize and admire much that has been done, or attempted. by those even who are not in sympathy with our aims, and our position respecting the place in the Lodge of the symbol of the Divine throne. And nothing would please us more than to have the power and the authority to give the grip of fellowship to those in whose testimony against iniquity and slavery we have felt the keenest delight. We have even been at times tempted to wonder whether we have not been just a little too hasty in our assumption that the symbols are necessary to the recognition of the authority they represent. We have been at times also agreeably surprised to find the members of these quasi-masonic bodies (as some regard them) acting very much as we would act in similar circumstances. And yet we have always come to see that any derogation from the sole authority of the Creator means the inevitable sequel of the setting up of a host of denominational authorities which each claims to exercise rule upon the great Level, and each renders anything like harmonious labour a something out of the question. We are more and more convinced that the only possible Empire is that which has supreme as its warrant the Imperator. We need not go abroad to see this. We have many institutions of a beautiful and useful character, such as the Christian orders of chivalry to which so many Masons delight to belong. Introduce the ritual and the legend of one of these into the lodge of Craft Masonry, and disruption is certain. And when we remember that there are so many of the religions of the world that do not accord to that we most of us belong to that respect that we render to it, we can see at once that the imperial Masonry must, and can alone come, upon the basis of true Craft and Royal Arch Masonry.

Nor can this Empire come under the aegis of any nation, or race. Religions have shown that their influence is greatest when they do not follow the flag. A flag not our own excites suspicion of dynastic aims and that religion is the most successful in establishing itself which is not identified with any nation, but only with the Imperator in whose name the missionary goes forth. The authority must become effective through the human and not the national instrumentality.

Mankind is more than Nations are,
And human trust than nation's power.

Cordial intents have not been born through the skill of the diplomat; but have become effective through the pervasive friendship of peoples, which diplomats have recognized and made use of. And the empire of Freemasonry must come by a similar pervasion. We do not attack the religions that recognize the authority of the LORD of the Sacred Name; but we pervade them with the spirit which finds access to every one of them. It is this spirit which creates the empire. There are religions which as such have little in common and yet which in the lodge find that all are aiming at the correct building of the temple, and all are depending upon the accuracy of the same plans. Where we cannot meet in comfort in church, we can delight in gathering at the Pool of Siloam. We cannot unite in the propagation of a doctrine of religion; but we meet upon the square in all the work of education and nation building that we devote our common labour to as Freemasons. The place for flag waving is not the lodge; for there we realize as perhaps nowhere else that the Masonic Empire must be the goal of a perfect national ideal, and that all nations, whether they know it or not are working toward the ideal of a common brotherhood. And we feel assured that there is no common brotherhood without its anterior Common Fatherhood. Already Freemasonry has made war less terrible, and less in evidence as the final arbiter of nations. Already things are of common occurrence in the campaign which testify that the world is coming to the view that in the builder's Lodge there are things of greater importance than the dialect of the Mason or the garments he wears. The babel of tongues no longer shuts out from the universal communion any of the sons of God. As we are told the first wandering of Mankind began with Man's disobedience to the Supreme Law, so the return of Man to his proper Oneness will come about when the obedience is restored.

Yet, while we must place the flag in its proper relationship to Masonry, we cannot but be pleased that there is such a tendency among those who do speak our language and are filled with our spirit to a closer reunion within the bounds of the world Empire of our race. The Masonic leaven must begin to work in the homes of those who were once of our own household. And Freemasonry can only become imperial by this leavening process. Already the old suspicions and animosities which had much of their origin in political feuds centuries ago are dying a natural death. There is expressed on both sides of the Atlantic a feeling that it is about time that our common Anglo-Saxon conception of Masonry should be presented in more similar forms. Now that there is no reason for the suspicion that territorial considerations are at the base of the desire for unanimity some round table conference might be sought without invidious suggestion; and this would pave the way to many acts of community that would eventuate in a better understanding, and a more intelligent appreciation of each other's Masonic ideals. And a common ideal held by those who hail from the North of Europe, would not be allowed to end there. At present there is a sharp line of cleavage which insensibly divides the Latin from the other races of European descent. There is no reason why this should continue to exist, and the common understanding of the Masons, and the Masonic bodies that are represented in our American Colonies and the great Republic beyond the Atlantic would prepare the way to such a rapprochement as might result in a world Masonry that would be in deed and in truth a real Empire.

Without for a moment abating one demand of pure Masonry, and indeed with a common accentuation of that upon which Masonry is based, it might be found possible to replace the travesty of Masonry so much in evidence in the South with the real thing. And could this be done then we should indeed be impregnable as an army of Peace, and of Progress. Later the ancient, but less known systems of the yellow and red races might have attention, with the effect that the separating suspicions which are so hindering in their influence upon the advance of the race would prove easier of solution. There is no field in which the beneficent influence of Freemasonry might find itself barred. All that is disruptive in the present social system, all that is wasteful in the present method of government, all that is generative of suspicion or hatred in the councils of men, and all that in any way would, or could, tend to hold back mankind from the common labour which would build the temple of Humanity, would prove still more easy to get rid of, and Man would be elevated to more than his pristine purity and usefulness. The imperial ideal of Freemasonry has robbed the "wireless" of much of its terrors; and the "airship bogie" would lose half its dangers did we realize in the language of a common Masonic experience how much better it is for brethren to dwell together in unity, in an Empire of Brotherhood.

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By Bro. M.S. Hughes, California

Ye editor does not have time to read the Proceedings of all the Grand Lodges, but he wishes to call attention from time to time to matters in such as he does read. For example, the report of the Committee on Masonic Education in the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of California – with which this Society had somewhat to do, by way of suggestion – is worthy of study. Furthermore, we wish to express appreciation of the brilliant address on "A Triad of Masonic Ideals," by the Grand Orator, Brother M. S. Hughes. It is thoughtful, finely phrased, and straight to the point, as well as rich in striking epigrams. He discusses the ideals of Quality, of Knowledge, of Religion, and where there is so much that is good it is not easy to select. We content ourselves, for the present at least, with that part of the address touching upon the necessity of Masonic education, which is not only pertinent to the purposes of this Society, but interesting as disclosing the attitude of the leaders of the Craft in the Grand Jurisdiction of California.)

Our second Masonic ideal is that of knowledge. One of the ends of Masonry is light; and light is synonymous with intelligence. The man who travels the highway from West to the East is a seeker after light. The implication is that Masonry has an educational function, and that every Lodge ought to be a school of instruction with a curriculum covering the theory and practice of brotherhood. This educational function of Masonry ought to have in view both the individual member and the world at large.

It is a necessity if we are to have a Masonically intelligent membership. It goes without saying that no man ever grasped the full significance of the principles Masonry simply by receiving the degrees. In the first place, a great deal of our ritual work has come to us from the past. Much of it, therefore, needs translation because of terms that are obsolete, and interpretation because of forms that are archaic. In the next place, there is much that is symbolical; and symbols, such as those employed by Masonry, need more than the passing explanation given in two or three brief lectures. Again, the circumstances under which the degrees are received are not conducive to clearness and continuity of thought. And, finally, many Lodges are all too lax in conferring degrees without even the superficial preparation required by Masonic usage. These are some of the reasons why every Lodge should be a school of instruction on the subject of Masonic spirit and methods.

The results of our failure in this respect are manifest. The first outcome is what may be called Masonic illiteracy. It is not too much to say that there are a great many who have received our degrees who have no clear idea as to what a Mason actually is. If they were held up at the point of a gun some night with the demand: "A definition of a Mason, or your life!" they would be likely to turn up in heaven or some other place at breakfast time. The current notions about our Order sometimes remind one of the famous college definition of a lobster. A freshman was asked by the professor of natural history to define a lobster. He gravely replied that a lobster is a red fish that walks backward. The professor said it was a most excellent definition with some trifling exceptions. In the first place, a lobster is not a fish; in the second place, it is not red; and, in the third place, it does not walk backward. Otherwise, he said, the freshman had given a good definition.

Now, Masonry either stands for something definite, or it does not. If it does mean anything definite and distinctive, then every member of a Lodge should have clear ideas on the subject. That desirable end can only be accomplished by making every Lodge a school of instruction, and having intelligence, as one of our Masonic ideals, kept constantly in view. Even our fundamental principles need interpretation. It is a commonplace, for example, to say that Masonry means brotherhood. But at once a score of questions are suggested to the inquisitive mind: What kind of brotherhood? What is brotherhood? What does Masonic brotherhood imply? What are the obligations of Masonic brotherhood under specific circumstances? What is the relation of the brotherhood to those who do not belong? The intelligent Mason ought, at the very least, to be able to give answers to such elementary questions.

When we remember that the man who comes into Masonry takes up a life work, the necessity for the educational function of the Masonic Lodge appears even more imperative. Brotherhood is a profession, comprising both a science and an art; but who acquires a profession in the conferring of three degrees on three evenings, together with the memorizing of a few paragraphs of a ritual service, and the hearing of a few brief lectures? The man who takes up the profession of medicine these days must have a preparatory college course; must prosecute four years of strenuous study; must serve his time in hospital; and after all that it is considered that he is just ready to begin practice. The same thing is true of the other learned professions. But we expect to turn out qualified Masons after the manner of some of our get-rich-quick advertisements. The impossibility of such a thing is self-evident; the imperative demand for the persistent diffusion of Masonic intelligence among the members of the craft is no less apparent.

It is also to be emphasized that Freemasonry owes something in the way of the spreading of its principles to the world at large. Our teachings are not to be kept in cotton-wool, only to be brought out and exhibited within the secrecy of the lodge-room. There are certain things for which Masonry stands and there are certain things against which Masonry stands, and those things may well be known to mankind, both for the sake of Masonry and for the sake of the world. My earliest Masonic recollection goes back to the time when I was a little boy. There was a man in the small community accused of stealing turkeys. He was brought up for trial in a Masonic Lodge, found guilty and expelled. The action of the Lodge became known to the public, and the community understood that, whatever else the Order favoured or opposed, it was against turkey stealing. That is the first thing I remember about the Masonic Order; and now that I have had a rather extensive and comprehensive acquaintance, it is my conviction that it was a very wholesome beginning.

We believe that our principles are of value to mankind, and that each fraternity is a prophecy of the coming time of universal brotherhood. There ought to be some point of influential contact between Masonry and the social order whereby the public might profit by a knowledge of what it is trying to do in the world. This work cannot be accomplished by one Grand Lecturer, whose hands are full by reason of the demands of the Order. It might be feasible for each Masonic jurisdiction to maintain a sort of university extension course – to have a number of really qualified lecturers, who could not only interpret the work to Masons in the lodge room, but who in addition, could elucidate the broad principles of human brotherhood to the great world outside.

This program of education is a necessity if Freemasonry is to avoid the risk of being left behind in the progress of the race. The meaning of such a statement may be illustrated by reference to one of the familiar bits of our history. One of the stock stories frequently heard at Masonic banquets, is the incident of the wounded Mason on the battlefield giving the hailing sign of distress and being rescued and cared for by one of the enemy who was a brother Mason. It is always recited as a triumph of Masonic sentiment and principle. But without minifying the value of such a manifestation of fraternity, it may be declared that the real triumph of Masonry will not be seen in the world until its influence is so felt and applied, that brother Masons will never be compelled, by personal ambition and arbitrary power, to face one another in deadly combat on the battlefield. And that end can only be attained by a persistent and prolonged process of general education on the basis of the principle of brotherhood. Freemasonry cannot be content simply with the rescue of an individual here and there from the horrors of actual warfare; it must strive by every means in its power to bring to humanity the lasting era of peace.

Our point may also be illustrated by a reference to our familiar work of charity. Freemasonry is philanthropic. No little time and thought are given in such gatherings as this to the work of relief and the sustaining of charitable institutions. Our fraternity responds to the cry of distress with open-handed generosity; but the giving of alms is only the kindergarten course in human relief. The Good Samaritan was faithful to his immediate duty when he took care of the unfortunate victim of thieves on the Jericho road. It has been suggested, however, that the modern Samaritan has been extending his work of travelers' aid. He has been inquiring about the antecedents of the thieves and seeking to know why the boys in Jerusalem and Jericho are growing up as criminals; he has been wanting to know why the authorities do not give protection to those whose business calls them to and fro between the two cities. He is no longer content simply to exercise humane offices in behalf of the individual who has become the victim of preying criminals and negligent authorities.

Thus, in the nature of things, we must add to our work of relief, some inquiry into the reasons why appeals for help are being made from time to time. And if it is discovered that many of these burdens have been thrown upon Masonry by reason of wrong and oppression in the social order, then Masonry must do its part in the righting of the wrongs and in the prevention of such injustice. It is childish to imagine that a great order will always be content to care for specific cases of want, without inquiring as to the causes of the want it is called upon to relieve. These things, certainly practical and pressing in character, simply serve to show that we must give new attention to the Masonic deal of knowledge.

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Forget thy sorrow, heart of mine;
Though shadows fall and fades the leaf
Somewhere is joy, though 'tis not thine;
The power that sent can heal thy grief:
And light lies on the farther hills.

Thou wouldst not with the world be one
If ne'er thou knowest hurt and wrong;
Take comfort, though the darkened sun
Never again bring gleam or song –
And light lies on the farther hills.
– Richard Watson Gilder.

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By Bro. Eber Cole Ryam Illinois

I HAVE read with interest the article on Masonry by Brother John Lewin McLeish, published in the June issue of The Builder, and heartily agree with his abhorrence of needless bloodshed. I have read, with him, the excerpt from the writings of Albert Pike, and again agree with him – as I assume he agrees with Pike – that "wars, like thunderstorms, are necessary to purify the stagnant atmosphere;" and again, that "a war for a great principle ennobles a nation." But did anyone ever hear of any people ever going to war except to assert "a great principle ?" Are not each and every one of the powers now at war fighting for that greatest of all principles – "national existence ?" Even the United States Government, when persuaded to attack Vera Cruz, in order to deprive Huerta of his source of revenue, pleaded a point of honour," and urged the flimsy pretext of demanding "a salute to the flag," whereas, as a matter of fact, the greatest dishonour to that flag was the abandonment to possible massacre of helpless men, women and children. I refer to the withdrawal of the American warships from Tampico. Had it not been for the energy and determination of the German commander in rescuing from the infuriated mob those American citizens, who had been abandoned by their government, a horrible massacre would have been recorded.

Bro. McLeish refers to the article in the New Age for August, 1915, written by "a high Mexican Masonic brother." Does Bro. McLeish vouch for this "Brother?" I think not. So far as I am informed, the particular brand of Masonry that this "Brother" represents is "clandestine," and, therefore, not recognized by "regular Masons," and for very good and sufficient reasons, of which Bro. McLeish is perfectly aware.

Latin American Masonry is atheistic, revolutionary and contentious, and in Mexico it has become anarchistic and murderous. Whatever moral lessons – if any – are inculcated in its "lodges," they are certainly forgotten entirely when outside of them.

Bro. McLeish omits to mention the name of the "high Mexican Masonic Brother," – very likely because that name means nothing to him, but it might help in the illumination of events, past, present and to come, if ; this "brother's" name were known.

In championing the cause of the Mexican Revolution, Bro. McLeish is actuated by the most exalted motives of human sympathy and unquestionably is convinced that what "Bro." Jose Castellot says is gospel truth inspired by motives as equally sincere. As for Senior Castellot himself, I can only say to him that I have lived years in Mexico; I speak the language; I have the honour of knowing some of those who have served Mexico faithfully and well, and I have read a part – at least – of its long stormy history. But about Senior Castellot and his article I would like to remind Bro. McLeish that a close reading of it will disclose the fact that while it has a wealth of charges it is poor indeed in citations of fact. Unfortunately, these charges all agree with what Bro. McLeish and I were taught to expect and to accept as true. They agree with our inherited prejudices – prejudices that have persisted in spite the teachings of our lofty Masonic ideals of Truth, Charity and Toleration. These inherited prejudices of ours go back to the days of the Spanish Armada and the Reformation. We remember only the disagreeable events of the reign of "Bloody Mary," and only the agreeable events of that of the "Virgin Queen." The histories we studied are conveniently apologetic and frankly laudative about "Good Queen Bess," while they spare no censure for Mary. They fail to make prominent the fact that in that day, religion being a state affair, the state considered abandonment of the state religion as treason to the state. We have taken certain things for granted; have assumed them to be axiomatic, and in that assumption have measured evenly statement by that rule. If the statements agree with our preconceived opinions, well and good; if not, we give them no credence.

We are prepared to credit any story coming out of Mexico which charges oppression of the poor by the Church and the well-to-do; that the lands of the poor were taken from them by the Church which sought to keep them in ignorance that there might be no protest; that the Church was gorged with wealth and that Mexico was "priest-ridden."

Even if all these charges were true, would it merit the endorsement by American Masons of the horrible outrages which Senor Castellot condemns in one breath and condones in another? But are these charges true ? What evidence has been produced to prove them? They have been repeated again and again by innumerable travellers and writers who deal in generalities but avoid particulars. But where is the evidence, where are the facts to prove them justified?

Masonry teaches us to be just and fair. Is it fair, then, to accept heal say evidence such as this – to accept the word of those who, obviously, are prejudiced witnesses ?

In Mexico the Spanish conquerors found a people possessing a civilization not greatly different from that of our South-western Indians. But there was this difference – they were cannibals, and cannibals of a most horrible kind. This does not agree with Prescott, but it agrees with the facts. The early conquerors made slaves of some of these natives, but when they were all freed the number was found to be 151,000 men. This freedom was by older of the Pope and the Spanish Government. Pope Paul III decreed in a Bull issued June 17th, 1537, that the natives were by right free and with full right to own property, and that under no circumstances were they to be deprived of their liberties or their properties, nor in any manner to be made slaves. The Christian missionaries were active, not only in preaching the Gospel and baptizing the natives, but were particularly zealous in protecting them from the white immigrants. The Spanish Government, at the earnest solicitation of the Churchmen, (Las Casas and others), decreed a series of laws which have been declared by those who have studied them the most enlightened laws ever enacted for the government and protection of a primitive people. Under these laws the Indians of Mexico really prospered until the War of Independence. They were confirmed in the possession of their communal lands and were permitted practically to govern themselves. They were exempt from all tithes and taxes of every kind except a payment of $1.25 per year per man. The Attorney General was their official protector, and in court actions they paid no attorney's fees nor court costs.

That the Church made an honest effort to educate them is proven by the long list of educational institutions founded for their benefit. As a matter of fact, Mexico, in colonial days, was noted for its educational institutions. Of course, the Church was in charge of most of these, but that should be to its credit. The only reason there were no more was because the Church lacked the numbers and funds for the purpose.

A careful examination of the records will show that the Church establishment in Mexico has provided spiritual services with a far less proportionate number of clergy, and for a minute fraction of the sum per capita, than is done in the United States today. The monks and nuns were mostly engaged in educational work and the great monasteries and convents were in reality schools and colleges.

One writer, in a burst of enthusiasm to prove the riches of the nuns, tells of the income derived from all their properties and invested funds. This great sum divided among the 1847 nuns in Mexico gave $1.14 per day each, and this did not count the servants and the students who were more numerous than the nuns, and had to be supported from the same fund.

Another item overlooked is that all the Church schools were free. Before 1857 the schools in Mexico were mostly under the management of the Church, and the curriculum was as advanced as in any other schools of the same period. The Laws of Reform closed all these schools and prohibited the clergy from teaching, and ordered the monks and nuns out of the country, and confiscated their properties. The much exaggerated riches of the Church were in reality the endowments devoted to the maintenance of universities, colleges, academies, schools, orphanages, hospitals, and other benevolent purposes. The Government confiscated these funds and let the institutions go hang. Because the Churchmen protested against these outrages they were accused of "meddling in politics." Suppose some political party were to attempt to confiscate all the Masonic funds and properties, – would Masons submit without vigorous protest? Hardly! The Church in Mexico was stripped and had the melancholy satisfaction of witnessing the chagrin and rage of the strippers because the booty was so much below their calculations.

The Laws of Reform were not aimed at securing freedom of worship, but at the spoilation of the Catholic Church. Some justification was, of course, necessary even to themselves for such an act, and so we have had repeated to us a multitude of charges which, upon impartial investigation, are found without proof. Even under the Spanish Crown the Church had no such freedom of action as is permitted any church in the United States today. The records will show that the Church revenues were the reverse of what we have been led to believe, and of this revenue two-ninths was paid to the Spanish Crown as a tax; not to mention the appropriation of endowment funds which were never repaid.

The Laws of Reform denied clergymen the right to dress in any way indicative of their calling; denied the Church the right to own or administer property; to receive bequests or endowments for any purpose; denied it the right to operate schools and its clergy to teach in any manner except theology. The Government took possession of everything, including the churches with their contents, and all that was permitted the priests was to conduct religious services in them, but they could receive no support by trust funds nor from revenues of any property. In other words, they were limited to the free-will offering which might be tendered at the time of the service rendered. How would the American churches like to be restricted in this manner ?

Of course, if Masons are ready to admit that they are seeking to destroy the Catholic Church, – wipe it out of existence, – then I have nothing to say; but I am persuaded that this is farthest from their thoughts, and that they are as ready to condemn such unjust restrictions and confiscations against the Catholic Church as they would be to condemn any such like acts against the Methodist, or Baptist or Presbyterian Church. I am persuaded that American Masons wish to be just and fair to everybody – even to those who are frankly opposed to them. The Catholic Church is frankly opposed to Masonry, and bases its opposition on the ground that Masonry is a church, a religion, the same as the Methodist or the Baptist Church, or any one of the other ninety odd different varieties. Some Masons even are under this impression, which is altogether erroneous, as all thoughtful Masons will agree. Masonry is no more a Church than the Oddfellows, or the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers. But American Masonry does teach those virtues which the Latin branch of the craft seems pre-eminently to lack, – along with a proper perspective, knowledge of their own history and a sense of humour.

American Masons had best inquire closely into the antecedents of Mexican revolutions, and their leaders, before extending any sympathy which later may prove embarrassing.

Since the War of Mexican Independence, a militant minority – composed largely of socialistic "reformers," directing a collection of baser elements engaged in the enterprise for purposes of pillage – has dominated the majority. This has been made possible because of the heterogeneous elements in the Mexican population, which is composed of some fifty different Indian tribes, speaking as many different languages and preserving many of their pre-Columbian antagonisms. These are uniformly ignorant, not because of any lack of opportunity but because of a congenital conservatism which avoids everything new. Between the educated white elements and the Indians are the mixed bloods, inheriting sometimes good and sometimes bad. The presence of so many primitive characteristics, – so many that are in reality of the cave men and the Stone Age, has given Mexico a high percentage of mental defectives and criminals of the lower order. In addition to this, the student class has furnished a number of recruits to the socialist ranks, and the Latin socialist is a 'direct-actionist," impatient to destroy all of our present civilization in order to remake it to his own liking. It is from such elements as these that we have the present revolution. Even the "sainted Madero," well intentioned as he was, recruited his forces from the jails and the cattle rustlers, such as Villa and others like him. Madero's successors have not improved either in motives or in material. The result is that we have today in Mexico a condition just exactly such as might be expected from the teachings of Debs, Heywood, Mother Jones and Emma Goldman. And Senor Castellot is another of like kidney. Do American Masons vouch for this ? I think not.

I am not in accord with the philosophy of the Catholic Church, neither do I subscribe to that of the Church of England, nor the Methodist Church, nor the Baptist Church, nor to any other church. But I do believe that each church has a right to existence, to carry on its work amongst its followers, and to enjoy individually the same freedom accorded to all the rest. An attack upon any one of the churches will lead inevitably to attacks upon all the others. Whichever happens to be the largest becomes the object of attack; he field unites against it. Nor do these attacks stop at the churches; they inevitably spread to all other property interests, for, fundamentally, they are inspired by envy and cupidity. Hence, it has been in Mexico that the attacks upon the Church have been directed to its spoilation and from that they have turned upon all owners of property with the purpose of destroying the very foundations of society. Not content with destroying the Church and driving the clergy from the country, they have turned their "reforming" attentions to the land owners, the shop owners and all employers of labour. These they have murdered or driven from the country, and have closed or destroyed the industrial establishments. The labouring classes for whom they were so solicitous are now without employment and are starving. The same revolutionary elements which have destroyed all semblance of law and government in Mexico and made of it a shambles, are actively at work in the United States, seeking to destroy our present industrial and social civilization. For the details of their intentions and desires I refer those interested to the literature published by the Industrial Workers of the World; for the Mexican Revolution is an I. W. W. Revolution.

I am confident that Masons unreservedly and heartily will condemn this Mexican revolution when its real inspiration, its real motives and its real results are made known to them.

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  • Peyton Randolph, president of the first Continental Congress, in 1774, was Provincial Grand Master of Virginia; but he died and was succeeded by John Hancock.
  • John Hancock was raised in Merchants' Lodge; Quebec, in 1760, and affiliated with St. Andrew's, Boston, in 1763.
  • Josiah Bartlett, Grand Master of Massachusetts.
  • Wm. Whipple, Library Masonic History, vol. IV.
  • Matthew Thornton, same.
  • Samuel Adams, member of St. John's Lodge, Boston
  • John Adams, same. See Proceedings of Massachusetts G. L., 1733-92.
  • Robert Treat Paine, Elbridge Gerry, Roger Sherman, Oliver Wolcott, Philip Livingstone, Franz Lewis, John Witherspoon, Francis Hopkinson, Robert Morris, Benjamin Rush., Library Masonic History, vol. IV.
  • Benjamin Franklin, Great Master of St. John's Lodge, Boston.
  • George Ross and Richard Henry Lee, Library Masonic History, IV.
  • Thomas Jefferson, on rolls of Lodge of Nine Muses in Paris.
  • Thomas Nelson Jr., Benjamin Harrison, Francis Lightfoot Lee, and Wm. Hopper, Grand Lodge Proceedings of Virginia, 1788-1822.

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Strange the world around me lies,
Never yet familiar grown,
Still disturbs me with surprise,
Haunts me, like a face unknown.
In this house with starry dome,
Floor'd with gemlike plains and seas,
Shall I never feel at home,
Never wholly be at ease?
On from room to room I stray,
Yet my Host can ne'er espy,
And I know not to this day
Whether guest or captive I.
– William Watson

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Marquis De Lafayette

MUCH was said during the early days of the world-war now raging as to the attitude of our Republic in the crisis; and opinions differed regarding our debt to France as compared with that to Germany, for aid given during our War of the Revolution. Both of those countries sent assistance of various kinds. Whatever the degree of obligation, it is the simple fact that of all the men who came over to aid the colonists in their struggle, the name of Lafayette has come down to us with a peculiar lustre. Questions have been raised as to the motives, high or low, disinterested or selfish, which led these men into the war. Bearing upon this question, in respect of Lafayette, it is interesting to read what is said about him in "The Household of the Lafayettes," by Edith Sichel, as follows:

"One night, in 1776, the Marshal de Broglie was giving a dinner party in honour of the Duke of Gloucester. This light-hearted brother of George III regaled the company with accounts of the American revolt, and especially of the affair of the tea in Boston Harbour. His sympathy was with the rebels, and he dwelt on their need of recruits. The guests were men of high rank, and gorgeous uniforms were much in evidence. Almost unnoticed among them sat a young man of nineteen, silent, solemn, absorbed in listening; he was thin, red-haired, hook-nosed, and awkward. After the dinner was over, he strode across the hall to the Duke of Gloucester, outwardly calm, but repressing deep emotion. "I will join those Americans," he cried. "I will help them fight for freedom. Tell me how to set about it." He was the Marquis de Lafayette, not long married; and it has been said of him that his whole life was ruled by two passions – love for his wife, and love of freedom."

Ninety-two years ago New York City witnessed the most enthusiastic celebration of the birthday of Lafayette in the history of our Republic. Lafayette himself was present, on his final and memorable visit to the country whose struggle for independence he so nobly aided. Instead of thirteen weak colonies he found twenty-four prosperous States. His journey through the States was an ovation of patriotic gratitude and pride, and he returned laden with all the honours which a nation can bestow. On May 20th, 1834, he died in Paris in his seventy-seventh year – a gracious gentleman, a knightly soldier, an honoured and beloved member of the Masonic fraternity.

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The Works Of Pike

At last we are to have, what many of our readers have no doubt long desired, a carefully edited set of the works of Albert Pike, one volume of which is to be a biography by his daughter, Lilian Pike Roome. It runs to six volumes, the first two of which will be ready shortly, and exhibits the many-sided interest and activity of a myriad-minded man who was explorer, hunter, teacher, soldier, poet, scholar, jurist, orator, philologist, philosopher, and a master genius of Masonry. Lyrics and Love Songs fill the first volume, followed by the Hymns to the Gods and other Poems – some of them never before published; while the third volume is the story of his life, told with painstaking accuracy and wealth of detail; revealing a rich and fruitful career touching all the elements of romance, adventure and achievement, from the wild Indian tribes in the Southwest to the high altar of the House of the Temple. A volume of Recollections will include his travel sketches and short stories, another is made up of Letters, and Addresses on various occasions – Masonic, academic and legal – and a final volume of selections from his Masonic Allocutions and other writings in exposition or defence of the Craft.

For years ye editor has had it in mind to write a Life and Study of Albert Pike, but has delayed doing so at the request of his daughter, who wished her biography of her father to be the first in the field. So, and naturally so, there has been a revision of our plan, limiting our study to the Masonic labours of Pike, which his daughter, with all her filial piety and devotion, could hardly interpret. There is need for such a book, just as is a sore need for a new edition of "Morals and Dogma," which is little more than a compilation, and which ought to be revised, re-edited, re-arranged, many parts of it recast, if not rewritten, in behalf of clarity and simplicity – as, for example, the brief exposition of the Doctrine of the Balance in our last issue. It is a vast mountain of ore, with many a nugget of gem-like truth sparkling in the sunlight, but it needs to be worked and its treasures recast in the moulds of today and interpreted to the young men entering the Order. As it is, few Masons read Morals and Dogma through, and fewer still understand it, when, in fact, its teaching is very simple when clarified and made vivid.

Masons everywhere, and many who are not members of the Order, will welcome the Works of Pike, and the story of his life will recall to this generation the memory of a truly great American, who has not received the honour to which he is entitled; a man imperious by nature, but gracious withal and lovable; a stately, grave and noble genius devoted to the highest things – a poet to whom the world was a song, a Mason to whom the world was a temple of the Eternal Beauty, Wisdom, and Love.1

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The sermons preached by ye editor in the City Temple, London, during the month of July, are to be published in a little volume by Revell & Co., New York – the volume taking its title from the first sermon, "An Ambassador." Should any reader of The Builder venture to read the book, we can only hope that the punishment will not be held to exceed that prescribed in the by‑laws of the Society.

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  • Blessed is he who is charitable, for he shall inherit Eternal Life.
  • Blessed is he who overlooks the faults of others, for he shall enjoy Divine Beatitude.
  • Blessed is he who associates with all with joy and fragrance, for he has obeyed the commands of Baha Ullah.
  • Blessed is he who is kind to his enemies, for he has walked in the footsteps of Christ.
  • Blessed is he who proclaims the doctrine of Spiritual Brotherhood, for he shall be the Child of Light.
  • Blessed is he whose heart is tender and compassionate, for he will throw stones at no one.

Words of Abdul Baha.

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An easy thing, O Power Divine,
To thank thee for these gifts of thine!
For summer's sunshine, winter's snow,
For hearts that kindle, thoughts that glow.
But when shall I attain to this -
To thank thee for the things I miss?
For all young Fancy's early gleams,
The dreamed-of joys that still are dreams,
Hopes unfulfilled, and pleasures known
Through others' fortunes, not my own,
And blessings seen that are not given,
And never will be, this side heaven.
Had I too shared the joys I see,
Would there have been a heaven for me?
Could I have felt thy presence near
Had I possessed what I held dear?
My deepest fortune, highest bliss,
Have grown perchance from things I miss.
Sometimes there comes an hour of calm;
Grief turns to blessing, pain to balm;
A power that works above my will
Still leads me onward, upward still;
And then my heart attains to this, -
To thank thee for the things I miss.
- Thomas Wentworth Higginson

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Out from the heart of nature rolled
The burdens of the Bible old;
The litanies of nations came,
Like the volcano's tongue of flame,
Up from the burning core below, -
The canticles of love and woe.
The word unto the prophet spoken
Was writ on tables yet unbroken;
The word by seers or sybils told,
In groves of oak, or fanes of gold,
Still floats upon the morning wind,
Still whispers to the willing mind
One accent of the Holy Ghost
The heedless world hath never lost.
- R. W. Emerson

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A patriot is a man who regards the enemies of his country as his personal enemies: a partisan is a man who regards his personal enemies as the enemies of his country.
– Henry Clay

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Beyond all wealth, honour, or even health is the attachment we form to all noble souls, because to become one with the good, generous and true, is to become, in a measure, good, generous and true.
– Thomas Arnold

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Whitcomb Riley

ALAS ! there is a vacant chair in the Library. While ye Scribe was on the other side of the sea, one of his best beloved poets passed quietly away to where, beyond these voices, there is peace. He was a gracious, kindly, wise and brotherly man, a great uninitiated Mason,and though the singer has vanished, his songs still sing. We venture to reproduce a little tribute written some months ago, while he was still with us, concerning which he wrote us a very kind note. It speaks for itself:

No man among us has ever received less of critical estimate, as a poet, than Whitcomb Riley. People would only get mad and sit back and call names if any one attempted to study him in that manner. They do not care to analyze his genius, or to set him in order among other singers. They just love him – because he is a man made to be loved. They love him as a friend as one who knows them and the life they live, and who has “figgered out" a simple and hopeful way of living it; and they hold that he is a man altogether worthy of being loved.

Riley was born at Greenfield, Indiana, in 1854, the son of Ruben Riley, a lawyer of that town – a blue-eyed, tow-haired, happy-hearted boy who saw pictures in the pastures, and heard melodies in the rustle of the wind in the corn. He began to study law in his father's office, and got along very well in winter time, but reading Blackstone "knee-deep in June" was impossible. So, when a patent-medicine man drifted into town needing a boy to beat the drum, Riley enlisted. Autumn found him far from home, stranded, and he had to paint signs to work his way back. This is what his biographers mean when they speak of him as "a traveling actor in his youth."

After that, he became local editor of the Anderson Democrat, his duty being to record the fact that John Jones had gone to Kokomo, and that Mrs. Jeremiah Snodgrass, of Greencastle, was visiting in town. But soon he began to mix odd prankish bits of verse with his items and his paper was more sought after than a comic almanac. All the while he was writing verses and sending them to the magazines, and always they were returned, until he decided that no poem not even Paradise Lost, signed J. W. Riley, would ever be published. Howbeit, he sent a poem called "The Old Swimmin' Hole" to the Indianapolis Journal, and it was printed. But he signed it "Ben F. Johnson, of Boone," and when the editor went to hunt Johnson he found Riley.

Grace, charm and melody are the obvious traits of Riley as a poet. But not one of these gifts, nor all of them together, can account for his hold upon us. No, people love Riley because of his pictures of our common human life, with its joys and sorrows, its blend of humor and pathos – life seen, for the most part, as a mirage through the prism of memory. He is the singer of the days of long ago, when life was new and wonderful, and whence our eyes are so often turned back pensively, knowing that those days come not back. He has, at times, the dramatic touch, as in "Good-bye, Jim," and the quick surprise of tears, as in "Nothin' to Say," mingled with the homely, wholesome philosophy of his dialect pieces.

Riley is as truly American as Mark Twain. Poe might just as well have done his work in Bagdad, for all the influence that his native land had upon his poetry. Our Yankee singers seemed to have been derived from England. Whitman, to be sure, sought to interpret the vague, vast, abundant spirit of America, but he did not often attain to poetic form. But in mental habit, in gesture of soul, in temper, spirit and feeling Riley is always American. He sings of simple things, of human life, of joys and sorrows and beauties that remain whatever kings and empires may be doing or undoing. God Be thanked for a poet of common sense and every-day life, for a singer in whom "thought grew tired of wandering over the world and home-bound fancy ran her bark ashore."

Riley has never married, but he has made his peace with the women through the children. Such poems as "The Bear story," and "Who Santa Claus Wuz," and "Out at Old Aunt Mary's" – not to name "The Little White Hearse" – show that he is a citizen of Never, Never Land. Yet he is a poet who writes about children, not a children's poet – like Eugene Field.

His song is of childhood as we who are older remember it, not as the child knows and sees it. That is why we who have not let the boy and girl die in us love him, for that he reminds us of those fair, lost days which we never wholly forget, and never wholly remember, when life was stainless and free from cares that fret and sins that defile.

That is Riley, God bless him! He knows that the Goddess of Beauty still holds her court in the dell where the fire-flies bestar her leafy firmament. Still for him the dew is on the clover and the drone of busy bees makes melody among the flowers. Now as of yore, for him, good fairies, crowned with silveriest moonlight, perch upon the window-sill and sing chuckling songs to good children, and fire-eyed, gratchy-fingered goblins will get the bad ones "ef you don't watch out." The rose has still her hinted secret for the curious breeze, and down by the old swimming hole of youth

"The dragon-fly in light
Gauzy armor, burnished bright,
Comes a-tilting down the water
In a wild bewildered flight."

And in the autumn-time, "when the frost is on the pumpkin and the fodder's in the shock" the cobwebs carpet the November lowlands with a glittering weft of beauty, finer by far than ever a Fairy wove on her airy loom. Blessed is the man who can see these things, and who by his art can make us look, listen, and remember.

And now that he belongs to a time that is gone and to the people who are no longer with us here – gone to join the Great White Lodge – there come to mind those lines in which he was wont to say good-bye when death robbed him of his friends; the familiar and simple lines beginning,

"I cannot say, and I will not say
That he is dead. – He is just away."

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The Eastern Star

Baring-Gould wrote learnedly of the myths of the Middle Ages, but the myths of Masonry still await the touch of a master hand. They are many and various, one of them being that Adoptive Masonry was introduced into this country in 1780, Washington and Lafayette constituting the first chapter. Adoptive Masonry – or more accurately Androgynous Masonry, from two Greek words signifying Man and Woman, was established in France as early as 1730; and an edition of the French ritual was printed in Philadelphia in 1768. Albert Pike made an English translation of it about 1874, revised and amplified, but efforts to establish lodges proved futile. Faint traces of something like the Eastern Star are reported in Boston in 1798, if we may judge from a poem published in the Columbian Centinel of that date; and even earlier in a pamphlet entitled "The Thesauros of the Ancient and Honorable Order of the Eastern Star," 1793 – this, however, is of doubtful authenticity, too uncertain to be trusted.

Robert Morris, of Kentucky, claimed to have originated the Order of the Eastern Star, and affirmed that "no one can show any proofs of its existence prior to 1849." Whereas the fact seems to have been that he received the degree of the Eastern Star at that time at the hands of Giles M. Hillyer, of Vicksburg, Miss. Nor is there apparently any record of where Hillyer got the rite. Morris took the rite in a crude form, elaborated and embellished it – much as Pike did the Scottish Rite – and started it toward organization; whereof we may read in his "Lights and Shadows of Masonry." Certainly, as it now exists, he builded better than he knew, and the Order is his monument. All of which is duly set forth in authentic form in "The History of the Order of the Eastern Star," by W. D. Engle, an able and admirable book, tracing the growth of the Order, its Grand bodies, its rituals, its objects and landmarks, its various Grand Chapters, and its home and charity work. This volume may be had by addressing the author, Masonic Temple, Indianapolis, Ind., $2.50.

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The second volume of the Transactions of the Author's Lodge, of London, is expected to appear this month, and is a book to which Masonic students will look forward. We had the pleasure of meeting its editor, Brother Albert F. Calvert, while in England, and it is a joy to announce that our readers are to have the opportunity of meeting him in these pages in the not distant future.

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Another forthcoming book, which will be awaited with interest, is the work of Brother Dr. Hammond, Librarian of the Grand Lodge of England, and will be descriptive of the treasures of the Library over which he presides. It will be finely illustrated, as we can testify after looking over the plates, and besides the account of the Library it will contain an introductory essay by Brother Hammond on the origin and development of the Craft. Brother Hammond will also be among our contributors not many months hence, in celebration of the bi-centennial of the Mother Grand Lodge.

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Most heartily and earnestly we join in the request that Brother A. S. MacBride, of the Lodge of Progress, Glasgow, publish another volume of his Masonic studies. Surely his volume of lectures, entitled "Speculative Masonry," is one of the best Masonic books ever written, and we sincerely hope that it may be only one of many from the same pen. One of the happiest days of our journey abroad was a visit to Glasgow, and the reception given us by the Lodge of Progress, of which Brother MacBride is the honored and beloved leader. Concerning this famous Lodge and its distinguished leader we shall have much to say shortly, in the travel sketches we have it in mind to record.

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Years ago Brother George Fleming Moore remarked that the true history of the Scottish Rite has never been written, and that is the fact. Rumor has reached us of a History of the Rite now being written, and we devoutly hope and believe that this is the book we have been waiting for. While we are not yet permitted to announce the name of the author, we are sure that it will be a thorough and careful piece of work and will do much to clear the air of fog and set forth the facts in a true light.

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  • Was Jesus an Essene?, by Dudley Wright. Unity Publishing Society, Kansas City, Mo. 25 cents net.
  • The Adventure of Death, by R. W. Mackenna. John Murray, London. $1.00.
  • Hinduism, The World Ideal, by H. Maitra. Palmer & Haywood, London. 75 cents.
  • Ancient India, by H. Oldenberg. Open Court Pub. Co., Chicago. 25 cents.
  • Abraham Lincoln, by Lord Charnwood. Constable & Co., London. $1.50
  • The Cultivated Man, by C. W. Eliot. Houghton Mifflin Co. 50 cents.

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  • Freemasonry in the Bible, by L. Bosman. The Channel
  • The Eternities of Masonry, by A. B. Beresford. American Freemason.
  • Masonry in Politics, by J. E. Morcomb. American Freemason.
  • Early Records of Modern Templar Masonry, J. L. Carson. Tyler-Keystone
  • Christian Mysteries, by J. L. Davidge. South Australian Freemason.
  • Cuban Freemasonry, by F. de P. Rodriguez. Bulletin Iowa Masonic Library
  • Masonic Research in Iowa, Interview with Ye Editor. London Freemason
  • Labor Ideals of Masons, by J. G. Gibson. London Freemason.
  • The Widow's Son, by F. C. Higgins. Masonic Standard.
  • The Lion in Freemasonry, by F. C. Higgins. Masonic Standard.
  • Dramatic History of French Masonry, by J. F. Renou. Masonic Standard.
  • The Blue and the Gray, by Ye Editor. Masonic Home Journal.
  • Masonic Toasts and Table Lodges, by J. L. Carson. Virginia Masonic Journal.
  • The Word Blue in the First Three Degrees, by R.E.L. Hall. The New Age.

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Dear Lord ! Kind Lord !
Gracious Lord ! I pray
Thou wilt look on all I love
Tenderly today!
Weed their hearts of weariness;
Scatter every care
Down a wake of angel wings
Winnowing the air.

Bring unto the sorrowing
All release from pain;
Let the life of laughter
Overflow again;
And with all the needy
O divide, I pray,
This vast treasure of content
That is mine today !
- James Whitcomb Riley

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Wesley and Masonry

A Brother asks if we were correct in saying some time ago, in answer to a question, that Wesley, the founder of Methodism, was not a Mason. Yes; there was a John Wesley initiated into Masonry during the lifetime of the evangelist, but not the evangelist himself – albeit the great preacher sometimes held services in a Freemason's Hall, as we learn from his Journal. Our Brother will find the facts thoroughly sifted and examined in an essay by the late Brother Crawley, in the Transaction of the Coronati Lodge, (vol. 15). If our Brother does not have access to those volumes, we shall be glad to give a more detailed aceount of the matter.


Some months ago you said that there were intimations in Shakespeare to the effect that he knew something of Masonry. Please give some examples.
– J.H.L.

The Duke in Measure for Measure speaks of himself as "a brother of a gracious Order," which may or may not mean the Masonic order. Boindello, in the Taming of the Shrew, addresses old Vincentio as "Worshipful Master." The Archbishop in Henry V. refers to "the singing masons." A servant in Winter's Tale speaks of "working on the square." Mrs. Quickly in Merry Wives refers to "the chairs of the Order." Herbert, in King John, uses these words, which are surely significant:

"They whisper one another in the ear,
And he that speaks doth grip the hearer's wrist."

For further examples, together with an argument trying to prove that Shakespeare himself was a Mason, see "Shakespeare a Freemason," by J. C. Parkinson, pp. 52-63.

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Kitchener As Freemason

In looking through the Glasgow Weekly Herald, of June 24th, I ran across the following statement which may be of interest to Members of the Society: "In all the Kitchener memoirs published recently no mention seems to have been made of his Masonic connections. Yet he has held some of the highest offices in the Craft. Strangely enough, there are few English Masons who can give you the name of his mother Lodge. As a matter of fact, Kitchener was initiated into the Order in Egypt, and there is in existence a photograph of him wearing Masonic regalia." Very truly yours, A. W. Hoy, Iowa

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Actual Past Masters

I have asked you twice for information of any kind about the Actual Past Master's Degree. Have you neglected it, or is every one else as ignorant on the subject as I am?
– T.W.S.

Actual Past Masters are those who receive the degree of Past Master in symbolic Lodges, as a part of the installation service – after the manner of the Installed Master's rite in England – when elected to preside, and are called Actual Past Masters to distinguish them from those who pass through a ceremony in the Chapter as preparatory to receiving the Royal Arch. It would not be proper to describe the degree, but of its history and development our Brother may read in the article on Past Master, in Mackey's Encyclopedia of Freemasonry.

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The First Idealist

In The Builders, your little book which I much enjoyed, you speak of Akhnaton, king of Egypt, as "the first idealist." Tell me, please, where I can read more about him.
– G.D.

It was Arthur E. P. Weigall, Inspector of Antiquities, Upper Egypt, who described the Egyptian monarch as "the first idealist." He seems to have been a pacifist as well, for he refused to fight to retain a province of his empire on the ground that "a resort to arms was an offense to God." He was born in Thebes in 1375 B. C., and his bones were found in the tomb of his mother, in 1907. Almost any recent history of Egypt will record his story, as for example "The Development of Religion and Thought in Egypt," by Breasted – a most charming and important book.

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Ritual Of Ancient Egypt

In the September Builder I note a question asked relative to the Ritual of Ancient Egypt and find that I have in hand a circular announcing such a publication, as follows: New Publication of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, Ritual of the Mystery of the Judgment of the Soul, From the Ancient Egyptian Papyrus, translated and edited by M. W. Blackden, and described as of peculiar interest to students of Freemasonry. Published by John M. Watkins, 21, Cecil Court, Charing Cross Road, London. Price $1.30 post free. Perhaps this is the book the Brother is in quest of. Fraternally, H. L. Seibert, Lakewood, Ohio.

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The City Temple

Our Study Club has used your book, "The Builders," as a text-book during the last year, and it proved an inspiration to all. Could you suggest another book suitable to follow it in the second year's study? Also, would it be proper to tell us something about the City Temple and its work in a future issue of The Builder? It would greatly interest many of your Brethren, knowing that you have been called to that historic pulpit.
– J.E.E.

One of the best Masonic books ever written is "Speculative Masonry," by A. S. Macbride, of the Lodge of Progress, Glasgow, Scotland, and we believe you will find it suitable and profitable for your Club. The Society can secure it for you should you desire it. The story of the City Temple is perhaps best told in the "Life of Joseph Parker," by Albert Dawson. Address the author, 133 Salisbury Square, Fleet Street London E. C., price $1.50. Parker was the founder of the City Temple which stands in the heart of the old city of London, a few squares from the Bank, "the cathedral of the Free Churches," and is perhaps the most responsible pulpit in the world.

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Ethics Of The Ballot

Dear Bro. Newton: – "The Ethics of the Ballot" in the May number, p 160, prompts me to the following, which I read about forty years ago: "A young man from one of the best families in town – financially socially and religiously, a trusted employe in a bank – sent in his application, and the Brethren congratulated themselves and each other on the influence the acquisition of such a desirable citizen would have on the Order. It went the regular course and a black ball appeared. The W. M. then cautioned the members to be particularly careful as two or three as well as himself had expressed their opinion that it was a mistake. Still the ballot was foul and others expressed themselves, and contrary to all law the W. M. allowed the ballot spread the third time, and still one black ball appeared. Then others were allowed to discuss it until finally all but one brother had spoken, and of course all were looking at him. He was a physician, and when he arose he said, 'Brethren, I cast the blackball; I know this young man to be an irreligious libertine; I know he seduced the daughter of one of our members, our Worshipful Master.'

Use this or not, in any way you like.
Fraternally yours, S. A. Pancoast.

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The Early Days: History Vs. Tradition

It is much to be regretted that one may not attempt to arrive at the truth of History without being subjected to such unwarranted abuse as characterizes the Article in the July number of The Builder by P.G.M. Melvin M. Johnson of Massachusetts. Bro. Johnson evidently does not comprehend that ridicule or attempted ridicule is not argument, or that misstatement and deliberate misquotation is not legitimate criticism.

In a series of Articles in The Builder during 1915 Bro. Johnson cited several items which the leading Masonic Historians of the country have declared possess little if any historical value, and of the truth of some of his "facts," it is asserted that " it will require authentic documents to satisfy an impartial reader." I ventured to "take friendly issue with Bro. Johnson in some of his statements and conclusions," basing my conclusions upon existing original records only, regarding the authenticity of which no doubt has ever been expressed, and quoting such eminently able authorities as Bros. Gould, Meyer and Nickerson. Nowhere did I make a single statement which may truthfully justify the use of such a phrase as "gross charges by innuendo," "insinuations of faked" statements, or "slanderous and scandalous statements by way of insinuation and innuendo." The quotations cited were carefully noted by me, page and volume stated, and no opinion of my own given in any other way. I was exceedingly careful to say that "we eliminate the ifs, buts, possiblys and every other form of expression which implies doubt, – will present no evidence but that which can today be produced in the Original Record, no copy, no substitute, nor any writing based upon any man's recollection, nor will we admit on either side the employment of any statement whose authenticity is susceptible of any reasonable doubt." Certainly this is eminently fair to both sides of this discussion. The very highest authorities have declared the Massachusetts "history" to be susceptible of very grave doubt. The authenticity of the Henry Price deputation is positively denied, and in the "facsimile" published in the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, 1871, it is declared that the figures of the date have been altered.

Brethren of the Craft, you who may read this article, in quoting these authors, how say you, have I made "gross charges" against any one by insinuation or otherwise?

I have made no claim that Masonry in America was not born in Massachusetts, but I decline to accept Bro. Johnson's copies of documents said to have existed a century and three-quarters ago, and I do not ask him or you to accept any copy from me. I was simply giving my reasons for the statement elsewhere made regarding one particular Ledge, Solomon's Lodge No. 1, of Charleston, S. C., which I declared to be upon absolutely unimpeachable evidence the oldest Masonic body in the Western Hemisphere the existing Record of whose establishment is incontestable. Bro. Johnson has produced nothing whatever to disprove this statement. If he can do so, by any authentic original document, ante-dating our South Carolina Record, by one day, I shall unhesitatingly yield our claim with infinitely larger courtesy than he has seen fit to accord me.

One word more please. I proved beyond question that the first public procession of the Craft in America was in Charleston on May 26, 1737. Bro. Johnson admits the truth "that there was a procession of Masons (though not of a Lodge or Grand Lodge, as such)" on that occasion, but adds "there is nothing to even justifiably infer that regalia was worn." The paragraph copied by me states positively that the occasion was an Entertainment arranged for the "ancient and honourable Society of Free and Accepted Masons" "who came to the Play House, in the usual manner and made a very decent and solemn appearance" and "after the Play the Masons returned to the Lodge in the same order observed in coming to the Play House." How it is possible not to infer that they went as Masons, clothed as Masons, and returned as Masons to their Lodge, must certainly be beyond the comprehension of any candid reader.
Yours fraternally, - Wm. G. Mazyck, South Carolina.

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The Church And Freemasonry

Dear Brother Editor: I have been very much interested in the article on "The Church and the Craft," by Brother Mitchell, appearing in our June number. While I am of the opinion that both institutions have a noble and well-defined objective in the world today yet each must proceed along certain distinct lines to accomplish their destiny. There are, of course, various points of contact wherein they may coincide. Thus far we are agreed, but I must take issue with my good brother in his perhaps unintentional arraignment of the Church in its relations to social progress.

Let us, again, consider these two forces upon the basis of their contributions to human welfare and uplift. What is the Christian Church ? "First, it is a Commonwealth. In other words, it is a society of men who meet together for common objects, and it differs from the minor clubs or unions under which men avail themselves of the principles of association and resembles those greater societies which we call states, in this respect – that it claims unlimited self-sacrifice on the part of its members and demands that the interest and safety of the whole shall be set by each member above his own interest and above all private interests whatever. Secondly, as all commonwealths are originally based upon some common quality and for the most part on a blood relationship, real or supposed, of the members so is the Christian Church based upon a blood relationship, but the most comprehensive of all – the kindred of every human being to every other. It is therefore absolutely open to all human beings who choose to become members of it."

No institution has exerted such a wonderful influence for the welfare of humanity as the Church. Founded by the indomitable will of one man, it stands today, the greatest achievement mankind has ever witnessed; it has experienced every change of form, reflecting the dominant lines of thinking through all ages. Much is being written at the present time concerning "The Social Mission of the Church." Not a few persons are denying themselves the privilege of association with the Church, believing that it can bring no message to them. Some think, as does Brother Mitchell, that it goes forward "weighted down with dogmas."

It is fitting that we pause and consider these questions. What is the Social Mission of the Church? Can the Church lend impetus to economic reforms, identifying itself with class legislation and still preserve itself as a sanctuary for every human heart? The supreme task of the Church is still the preaching of the Gospel, intensifying the individual conscience and bringing to us the precepts of redemption and eternal life. The second task is the "reconstruction of congregational life." The third great task is to "enter into some relation with the arrangements of the world as it finds them. Christianity ought to stand aloof from no common experience of life and the world and it should be open to the consideration of all great questions." These three tasks, briefly stated, are the chief lines of effort involved in the fulfilment of the Social Mission of the Church today. But, "it is enough if religion prepares men's minds for great economic changes and revolutions." We are constrained to admit that in the past, the true character of the Church has been somewhat obscured by scholasticism. But this has been but one more stage in its evolution towards its ultimate destiny as the greatest moral force the world shall ever know. We can no longer rightly say that the Church "takes a man because he has a creed" – it is because he has a need.

What is Freemasonry? "Masonry is the activity of closely united men, who employing symbolical forms borrowed principally from the mason's trade and from architecture work for the welfare of humanity, striving morally to ennoble themselves and others and thereby to bring about a universal league of mankind which they aspire to exhibit, even now, on a small scale." As Masons, we are taught that our institution is only for those who are "moral and upright before God and of good repute before the world." The Church takes every man as it finds him, seeking to awaken that innate desire for companionship with the higher things in life. Having aroused this yearning in men, they see their existence justified and feel that through surrender and service can they approach nearer these ideals.

For the betterment of the great rank and file of humanity Freemasonry can only extend its influence indirectly through its adherents. We are a chosen body of men, selected because we possess certain qualifications, requisite to a proper appreciation of the teachings of Masonry and upon which, we are admonished to build our lives, applying the plumb, square, level and trowel. We too, as all other institutions, distinctly state certain principles to which petitioners must conform before they can "participate with us in our labors and privileges." And religion does recommend a man to Masonry, if by religion is understood the feelings and acts of men which relate to God. The great teachings of our order are necessarily confined to a small proportion of mankind. Therefore, despite its strong plea for tolerance, it can never be as universal as the Church of Christ.

In conclusion, perhaps we have unconsciously merited some opposition from the Church inasmuch as too often a brother declares "Masonry is religion enough for him." But Freemasonry, even though it were a religion, can never satisfactorily answer the four great fundamental questions of every age – God Life, Death, Immortality. Nor can any institution or belief which does not have for its inspiration the life and work of Jesus Christ. Masonry is eternally a quest for light. If, profiting by Masonic intercourse, we have learned to find good in every faith, and if we are truly pursuing that eternal quest for light, we are inevitably led to Him w ho is indeed the very Fountain of Light – the Man of Galilee, whose teachings have illuminated mankind these two thousand years.
Leland Kress, New Brunswick.

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An Ancient Petition

Dear Sir and Brother: – In your notice in the July number of The Builder of my work on the "Ancient Documents relating to the A. and A. Scottish Rite in the Archives of the Grand Lodge F. and A. M. of Pennsylvania," the patent of Abram Forst dated April 4, 1781, is mentioned. On page 18 of the book it states that "in his later years Brother Forst appears to have fallen into poverty and returned to Philadelphia, where he applied to the Masonic Fraternity for Charity." The only records upon our minutes show that his petition was read before Grand Lodge September 5, 1791, and referred to the committee on charity. No record of their action has thus far been found in this case. Our records show that Bro. Forst was in the West Indies in April, 1791. From his application to the Grand Lodge it appears that he returned to Philadelphia during the summer of that year.

Since our Book was published a bundle of petitions for charity from 1779-1809, undisturbed for more than a century in our archives, has been found. These are now arranged, collated and indexed, among which was the original petition of Bro. Abram Forst; a copy of this document is attached as a further example of some of the struggles of our early pioneers in the establishment of the Scottish Rite in America.
Julius F. Sachse, Pennsylvania.


The Memorial of Abraham Forst,
Past Master &c. &c.

Humbly Sheweth

That your Memorialist is at this time much embarrassed owing to unexpected heavy losses and disappointments and is necessitated to supplicate the Right Worshipful Grand Lodge collectively or the Worthy Brethren individually for the loan of a Small Sum of Money to defrey a few debts he has incurred for Board, Lodging, &c. &c. for himself and Son. And as he has a prospect of obtaining a Station in the course of next Month, which will establish him in Such a line of life, as to secure a decent Support for himself and Child; he is fully resolved to repay with Gratitude and Sincere Acknowledgement whatever Sum the Brethren may be pleased to advance him.

Your Memorialist not being accustomed to make application of this nature, is at a loss how to apologize for trespassing on your time, therefore leaves it to the Subject, and conscious of having never deviated from the strict and Sound Principles of Masonry, Your memorialist trusts that he will meet with that Candor and Generosity which ought be the characteristic of the Fraternity, and the requested assistance which he is in so much need of at this particular juncture and can be authenticated by Several of your respectable Members. Your Memorialist challenges any man to prove that he is not a strict Moral man & it may alledged with truth that he has been very unfortunate during a Series of 10 years, but never guilty of a dishonest or mean action.

And your Memorialist as in Duty Bound will ever pray &c. Abr. h Forst,

Philada, 5h, Septemr, 1791.
A. C. and of Masonry, 5791.

If any of the respectable Brethren, should at any time have occasion to employ an accomptant or Book Keeper, The Memorialist begs to offer his services, till he is provided for.

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"Unto The Least Of These"

The Atlanta Bodies of the Scottish Rite of Free Masonry maintain a Hospital for crippled children. There is no limitation of applicants on account of State Lines, Creed, Masonic connection or anything, save that the applicant must be absolutely poor and unable to pay anything, and there must be some hope of improvement being possible – nothing else.

We have received applicants from various States and only three in whom we could trace any Masonic connection. The finest orthopaedic surgery in the Country is given by the surgeon without charge or fee of any kind. The Hospital is now located in two connected wood shingle roofed cottages. The result of a fire would be appalling. There is no operating room. Children must be carried to some Sanitarium, operating room rented, and carried back to the Hospital after operation. Any movement after severe bone operation is excessively painful. Some of these children must undergo several separate operations. The Hospital can accommodate only twenty patients. There are 4000 of these unfortunates in the State of Georgia alone. We must build and equip a Hospital that will be fire proof and accommodate from 76 to 100 children. To do this will cost about $75,000.00. To maintain such an institution will cost about $30,000 a year. This, the Atlanta Bodies propose to do but it will tax their resources to the limit of their capacity. It is therefore necessary that we receive aid in building the Hospital. The cures already effected have been remarkable.
I am only a poor little cripple,
Crooked, gnarled, twisted and knotted
I tugged at a starved, flaccid nipple,
The spawn of a father, besotted.
Born contorted and warped in this fashion
I live, because live I must;
The fruit of a drunken passion,
The result of a whirlwind of lust.
Yet somehow, within this poor framework,
From some source, God only knows where;
As if to rebuke this vile shamework,
Has entered a spirit most fair.
While I lie here so helpless and quiet,
Unable to turn or to move,
My thoughts in wild fancies run riot
In fields that my eyes can not prove.
Can you, who are born better sired
Who could do, if only you would,
Dream the Hell in which I am mired
Who would do, if only I could?
Can you feel the wild, passionate longing?
Can you hear that which doth to me talk?
Every moment my tired brain thronging,
Dear God ! If I only could walk.
God grant that unto you never,
May come such a thought, in a dream,
It would haunt you forever and ever;
And murder your sleep, with a scream.
There's one hope. But for me a grim specter
Bars even that one tiny door,
I have no one to aid – No protector,
Dear Christ! I am frightfully poor.
Had I Gold, then perhaps I could hire
The help of a great surgeon's knife
To fashion my clay from this mire
And fit me for something in life.
Yet though a great surgeon be ready
To save me, without charge or fee;
Though my soul and my nerve be both steady,
There is nowhere a home built for me.
My spirit cries out with wild yearning -
The saving knife beckons me – Come -
Oh Man, spare enough of your earning,
For Christ's sake; to build me a home.

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Masonry In War-Time

Dear Sir: In contrast to the attitude of the Grand Lodge of England during the present war in excluding from meetings of the Fraternity in Lodges under its jurisdiction all Brethren who owe allegiance to enemy flags, or are descended from such it may be interesting to note the action proposed by R. W. Henry Price, the Founder of Duly Constituted Masonry in America, at a meeting of The First Lodge in Boston which was held on October 10, 1744, viz:

"The Lodge being Open'd, Brother Henry Price propos'd Capt: Delabraz as a Candidate and acquainted the Lodge that he was a Gentleman who being a Prisoner of War was thereby reduced, but as he might be servicable (when at Home) to any Bro whom Providence might cast in his way, it was desir'd he might be excus'd the Expence of his making, provided each Bro: would contribute his Cloathing, which the Rt: Worshl: Masr: was pleas'd to put to Vote, when it was carried in affirmative, & by dispensation from the Rt: W: Masr: & Wards: upon accot: of his leaving the Province very soon, he was Ballotted in, Introduced & made a Mason in due Form. Voted That the Secr: grant Bro: Delabraz a Letter of Recommendation."

I have a notion that even those Brethren of neutral countries whose sympathies are entirely with England and her allies in this war will regard this action of 1744 as more Masonic than the action of 1915. Indeed, I am reliably informed by an officer of the Grand Lodge of England who was present when the vote in question was taken last year, that if the question had been decided by the older and more experienced Brethren – say for instance those who had attained to the rank of Right Worshipful – the action of our English Brethren in Grand Lodge would have been quite different.
//Fraternally yours, Melvin M. Johnson, Mass.\
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Non-Masonic Bodies

Dear Editor: An explanation would be interesting of the attitude Masons should assume in regard to those non-masonic bodies who are building upon Masonic foundations. Such as the White Shrine of Jerusalem, The Senate, The Grotto, etc. The following interpretation was given by the Grand Lodge of Nebraska, in its last communication:

"This Grand Lodge claims and will exercise the right to determine the Masonic standing of any Mason who joins any society, lodge or organization, a requisite to whose membership is membership in a Masonic lodge, and therefore recommends the adoption of the following preamble and resolution:

"Whereas, divers and sundry societies and organizations are seeking to establish themselves in Nebraska and build on Masonry as their foundation stone; and

"Whereas, it is the duty of the Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of Nebraska, to care for the welfare of the members of its several lodges, and protect them from organizations that have no relation to Masonry, and yet seek to attach themselves thereto:

"Therefore Be It Resolved, That the Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of Nebraska, in the exercise of its sovereign rights and powers, declares that it is unlawful for any Mason of this Grand Jurisdiction to make application to or join any lodge, society or institution that shall provide as a condition precedent that one shall be a Master Mason in good standing, or shall have taken the degrees of Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft and Master Mason; providing that this inhibition shall not apply to York and Scottish Rite bodies, the Order of the Eastern Star, or to the Ancient Arabic Order Nobles of the Mystic Shrine."

Amendments to the Law – Sect. 96-A – "A lodge room can be lawfully dedicated if occupied only by the following other bodies: a chapter of Royal Arch Masons, a council of Royal an Select Masters, a Commandery of Knights Templar, a body of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, a chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star, a temple of the Ancient and Arabic Order Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, and a chapter of the Acacia Fraternity and the Achoth Sorority.

Masonic Offenses – Sect. :148 – "In making application to, a joining, any lodge, society or institution that shall provide as a condition precedent that one shall be a Master Mason in good standing, or shall have taken the degrees of Entered Apprentice Mason, Fellow Craft Mason, and Master Mason, provided this inhibition shall not apply to York or Scottish bodies the Order of the Eastern Star, the Ancient Arabic Order Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, or the Acacia Fraternity."
Fraternally yours, Henry H. Andrews, Nebraska.

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Pennsylvania Vs. Massachusetts

Dear Sir and Brother: Referring to the "Early Days" in the July issue – Mazyck vs. Johnson – Massachusetts as usual seeks to claim everything and attempts to fortify the claim by notice from the Boston Gazette of April 1, 1734, which so far as it goes is all right; but how about Pennsylvania? I am sending you by package post an electro of the heading of Franklin Gazette of December 3-8, 1730, No. 108, which if you can find room for, will speak for itself.

The true facts are, and cannot be controverted by argument or sophistry:

Pennsylvania 1730 – Massachusetts 1734
Magna est Veritas et Praevalet.

It would be well if the R. W. Bro. of Massachusetts would consult the Franklin Memorial Volume issued by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania in 1907.

So far as South Carolina is concerned, there are evidence that Freemasonry was originally introduced in South Carolina by Bro. Thomas Whitemarsh, a member of St. John's Lodge, in Philadelphia, and partner of Franklin in the printing business in Charlestown, S.C., as early as 1701-2.
Julius F. Sachse, Pennsylvania.

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Although you are just a poor man,
And your clothes are cheap and worn
If your heart has known repentance,
I'll welcome you to our home.

Even though your birth be humble,
If you want to be a man,
We'll believe in you, my brother,
And extend a helping hand

It matters not about your past,
Or the color of your skin,
Or what your education is,
Listen to the Voice within.

If you will spend your time and earnings
On a brother in distress,
Helping those who are afflicted,
And the weak ones' wrongs redress,

Then you are a man deserving
Of my love and my esteem
And I care not what your actions
In the eyes of others seem.

Should society disown you,
As inferior to its caste
Let it do so – I'll befriend you,
And be your brother to the last.
- Z P. Smith

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